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HEALTH BENEFITS OF BALLROOM DANCING

INTRODUCTION

ENTERTAINMENT-ARTS-SPORTS-EXERCISE

BALLROOM DANCING & CHANGES IN BODY

CHEMICAL, HORMONES

IMMUNITY

BRAIN & NERVES

MUSCLES

JOINTS & BONES

HEART & BLOOD

LUNGS

BENEFITS OF BALLROOM DANCING

BRAIN-BODY WORKOUT

BRAIN WORK OUT

HEART WORK OUT

MUSCLE WORK OUT

WEIGHT LOSS & CALORIE EXPEDITURE

SOCIAL INTERACTION & WELL BEING

SEXUAL FUNCTION

LIVING LONGER

PREGNANCY

DISEASES PREVENTION/TREATMENT

MENTAL PROBLEMS

DEPRESSION

DIMENTIA INCLUDING ALZHEIMER

DIABETES

CANCER

SLEEP

WEIGHT LOSS

HRART DISEAES

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

BONE LOSS

DANCING INCREASES INTELLIGENCE

AND MAKES SMARTER?

DANCE MUSICS

DIFFERENCES FROM JOGGING, AEROBIC & TREDMILL

BALLROOM DANCES

WHEN & HOW TO START

BEFORE STARTING

PHYSICAL SHAPE

FINDING A PARTNER

DANCE SCHOOL

DANCE TEACHERS

COMPETETION DANCING

COST & COSTUMES

ILL EFFECTS

DANCE WITHDRAWL

INJURIES

MARITAL PROBLEM

RECOMMENDATION AS EXERCISE

THE ROMANCE OF DANCE

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

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BENEFITS OF BALLROOM DANCING

INTRODUCTION:

“Modern behavioral psychology and medical science have learned much about the way we react dramatically to our rhythmic environment. We have learned how and why music, dance, laughter, touching hands, and happy social interactions combine in a mystic synergistic way to activate our hormones and neurotransmitters……while reducing the harmful stress-related adrenal steroid hormones…..which detrimentally disables the human immune system and increases undesirable fat storage around the waist and hips... Stated simply, joyful dancing can reduce stress and depression, and make us feel happy and healthy all over.” (17)

Until recently ballroom dancing was thought of as a kind of entertainment during the weekend, an art form with certain physical benefit, pending on type of dances and intensity of dancing.

As knowledge in exercise physiology is advancing, the benefits physical activities are gradually getting clearer. It is now well recognized in the scientific community that any form of physical activity, specially dancing is extremely beneficial to human physical health and more. During the last few decades, it has become evident that there is a huge mental benefit from dancing as well. The benefits of dancing are getting known and explained to the general public through newspapers and internet.

Obviously, spread of this knowledge is much to be desired in view of epidemic of obesity. Obesity related problems and diseases are eating away the massive amount of health care money. If the obesity is removed from the society, there will be no lack of money for the health care system and universal health care will be real possibility.

Obesity related problems will kill more people than by terrorists attack in future. In few years, it will cost close to four trillion dollars or 20% total US budget as medical expenses (5).

Exercise and proper eating are essential to keep weight normal and stay healthy. There is no excuse at least not due to lack of time, money or knowledge for people not to exercise and burdening the health care system due to obesity related diseases.

Dance schools and dance teachers should be in the fore front to spread these knowledge. They can derive financial benefit for themselves, at the same time, they can contribute to the society and the nation tremendously by helping to combat obesity by popularizing dancing and there by reducing obesity and improving mental health.

“Ever since the International Olympic Committee gave ballroom dancing provisional recognition, it has been getting a lot of attention as a true athletic activity (13).

The ballroom dancing receive further attention and excitement following the TV programs such as "Dancing with the Stars" and "So you think that you can dance".

Most people, those who do ballroom dancing regularly and frequently, they do this just for the joy of dancing, be in some good friendly companies, searching for a partner, competing and/or addicted to dancing ? due to endorphin effect (will be discussed later).

There are few medical researches on dancing have been published in English language literatures during the past decades (2, 3, 5, 15). Dancing is considered to be one of the top five mentally beneficial beside physical activities, out of 60 activities studied (13 ). Researches have shown that social dancing reduces stress, increases energy, improves muscle strength ,coordination and tone.

“When you are on the dance floor all of your worries just seem to melt away, and it’s as if you have the ability to dance till you drop. The music just takes over your entire body and mind, it’s great. This is the reason that there are so many dance clubs around, people love to dance. The funny part is that they are not even aware of the amazing affects it has on their health.” (18)

 

BALLROOM DANCING & CHANGES IN BODY

 

BENEFITS OF BALLROOM DANCING

PSYSICAL

BRAIN-BODY WORKOUT

BRAIN WORK OUT

HEART WORK OUT

MUSCLE WORK OUT

WEIGHT LOSS & CALORIE EXPEDITURE

Ballroom dance is a low (13, 28), medium (7) or high impact activity, depending on how skilled the dancer is and how intensely dancing is done. Lindy hop dancing could be very high impact activity.

Activity Rating Ballroom Dancing (28):

Aerobic: 4

Strength: 1

Flexibility: 3

Kj* per hour:

803.71kj (64kg female - moderate)
1004.64kj (80kg male - moderate)

Load impact: Low (28)

*Kj=joules

1 calorie = 4.184 joules

1 kilocalorie (kcal) = 4.184 kilojoules (kJ)

Ballroom dancing is very good brain-body workout, especially ?Tango.

This will be elaborated later.

Dancing is a great workout for any age including older age group or person recovering from illness. People should start slowly, and gradually increasing the intensity of \activity, after a medical consult if indicated. Some dance are more intense and rigorous than others, discussed later.

Benefits will depend on the duration, intensity, strenuousness, complexity of the dance activity and the nature accompanying music.

BRAIN-BODY WORKOUT

BRAIN WORK OUT

HEART WORK OUT

MUSCLE WORK OUT

BRAIN WORK OUT

BRAIN & MIND

Brain Teaser - Brain Exercise - The Dancing Brain

Possible changes in brain during dancing (17) - The Dancing Brain:

1. Increased blood flow to the brain during dancing due to increase heart rate resulting increased pumping of more oxygenated blood..

2. Social aspect: Less stress, depression, and loneliness from dancing environment.

3. Brain teaser: Mental challenges such as memorizing steps, working with the partner leading or be lead, interpreting music, being alert of not to step on (unfortunately does occurs though infrequently) or bump on other dancers.

"Dance, in many ways, is a complex activity. It's not just purely physical,"(17)

Dance challenges brain and muscle. "Muscle Memory" in realty is "Brain Muscle Memory".

469 people, at least 75 years old without dementia were studied.

They started mental and physical activities, like doing crossword puzzles and dancing. 124, who rarely or never danced developed dementia after five years compared with who danced frequently. Only dancing, out of 11 physical activities studied, was tied to a lower dementia risk.

Most dancers did ballroom dancing (15).

Dancing improves flexibility, strength, endurance (4), tone, posture and balance.

This was attributed engagement of the dancer's mind to dance music.

increase blood flow to the brain during dancing, social effect lead

to less stress, depression and loneliness, memorization of dance steps and working with a partner. All these are teasing the brain creating a situation of mental aerobic exercise (14,15).

HEART WORK OUT

Dancing can raise the heart rate anywhere from 80 to 120 (or more beats per minute depending on intensity and status of the dancers).

"That is the equivalent of any strength training or aerobic program available today. Sustained in 2 minute bursts over a 45 minute period will build not only your heart's strength, but it's endurance, too" (12).

There was no reference in the site

Cardiovascular work out makes one build stamina and endurance and more energetic.

MUSCLE WORK OUT

Virtually all muscle groups of the body are used in ballroom dancing especially in exhibition and competitive ballroom dancing. Ballroom dancing involves movement in all direction with various length of steps and strides.

As oppose to forward steps as in jogging and treadmill , the backward steps (such as during Waltz and Foxtrot, more frequently in females) and sweeping strides in various dancing improve the back muscles of the body, buttock, thighs & legs (7). Standing on toes, good posture and stretching the body, and maintain these during dancing are essential to look elegant. These are extremely hard works. These measures improves flexibility, tone, balance and strength of the muscles involved.

WEIGHT LOSS & CALORIE EXPEDITURE

Dancing like other exercises may help to control weight.

Weight loss and calorie burn will depend on type, duration, frequency, intensity, skill of the dancer and diet.

A 150-pound adult can burn about 150 calories doing 30 minutes of moderate social dancing (1).

Burning 3000 calories will result in loss of one pound of weight.

Dancing the night away can burn more calories per hour than riding a bike or swimming.(4)

Table below shows the type of dance and calorie burn rate per hour of dancing (14).

TYPE OF DANCE

CALORIES BURN PER HOUR

SWING

235

BALLROOM

265

SQUARE

280

BALLET

300

BELLY

380

SALSA

420+

AEROBIC

540+

 

Guidelines for Workout Strategy.

“The 2005 USDA guidelines make it clear that average adults should get at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity EVERY DAY. Overweight individuals need at least 50 minutes per day. Consistently maintaining physical activity is much easier if it also is a fun social activity, rather than a boring treadmill”(17)..

From Kramer and Ratamess in Sports Med. 2005 (2):

"Protocols high in volume, moderate to high in intensity, using short rest intervals and stressing a large muscle mass, tend to produce the greatest acute hormonal elevations (e.g. testosterone, GH and the catabolic hormone cortisol) compared with low-volume, high-intensity protocols using long rest intervals. Other anabolic hormones such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are critical to skeletal muscle growth."

Gradual incremental use of more physical exercises and mental faculties, leads to more strong physically and improving mental faculties. More one does dancing (judiciously), more benefits one derives on top of maintaining health. This is comparable to: when one spends money in judicious investments, more money will be paid back as profits with intact principle.

As regard benefits from dancing, patient is needed as improvements could be measurably small at a time or may not obvious initially.

How good exercise is dancing, can be summarized as "Once someone gets to the point where they're getting their heart rate up, they're actually getting a terrific workout. Dance is a weight-bearing activity, which builds bones. It's also "wonderful" for your upper body and strength…..It can be easier to stick to that with fun activities, says Cram.” (7).

BENEFITS

SYSTEMIC

MUSCLES

JOINTS & BONES

HEART & BLOOD FLOW

LUNG FUNCTIONS

MUSCLES

"Ballroom dance is a rigorous activity that uses the larger muscle groups, and is usually done over the course of an hour, or an entire evening," said George B. Theiss, President of Arthur Murray International (13).

“The legs and arms often do the flashy dance moves, but dancing also needs strong “body core muscles”( Information & Exercises on
Core Muscles:
Core Muscles or
FitnessBody.com/Core:
http://fitness.fitnessbody.com/body-map/abs-and-core/core). Our core is also essential in proven exercise programs like Pilates, says Janice Byer, a lifelong dancer. She is group exercise director of The Courthouse Athletic Club in Oakland, Calif.” (17).

Dancing requires bending, stretching and rotation which creates flexion ,extensions and rotation of the body, head neck and extremities in different directions.

These motions create and use resistance against owns body weight and opposing muscle/muscle groups and against partner. These repetitive motion cause increased flexibility and stronger and firmer muscles formation resulting in increase endurance and stamina. So the dancer can dance longer and harder. This means dancers can do better workout and become healthier. Stronger and firmer muscles improve posture and balance.

Muscle Tone (12)

Ballroom and Latin dancing, when done at an intermediate to advanced level of technique, use the perfect blend of isometric and isotonic resistance, the two key ingredients to muscle building and toning. The blend and use of the muscles is perfect for building beautiful tone in the muscles without building a lot of muscle mass, a big concern for women in particular.

This section is obtained from the reference 33.. "Up to 50 you can get away with not exercising;..." (35) after this

"The most dramatic declines due to aging are in muscle strength."

"Unless you do resistance exercise—strength training with weights or elastic bands—you lose six pounds of muscle a decade,"

"Strength training just 20 minutes a day, two or three times a week, for 10 to 12 weeks can rebuild three pounds of muscle and increase your metabolism by 7 percent. ..improving your ability to use glucose from the blood by 25 percent, increasing bone mass by 1 to 3 percent, and improving gastrointestinal efficiency by 55 percent."

"exercise—both aerobic exercise and strength training—has a tremendous impact on every cell in the body, reducing inflammation, increasing blood flow, and even reversing the natural declines in oxygen efficiency and muscle mass that come with aging."

".. people in their 60s and 70s who walked or jogged, biked, and stretched for 90 minutes three times a week for six months increased their exercise efficiency—their ability to exercise harder without expending more energy—by a whopping 30 percent."

. "....may involve improvement in the function of the mitochondria—spherical or rod-shaped structures in our cells that take glucose, protein, and fat from the food we eat and turn them into energy. ...that most of the dramatic benefits we get from exercise can be traced to this improvement in the mitochondria. "Mitochondrial function naturally declines with age," ...

. But exercise, he found, can reverse that decline."

"... Exercise reduces the overall rate at which you create harmful free radicals."

"..exercise slows down the rate at which our telomeres shrink. (Telomeres are DNA sequences, located on the ends of chromosomes, that shorten as we age..."

.

JOINTS & BONES

Ballroom dance is a low (13, 28), medium (7) or high impact activity (lifting the partner above head and shoulders as a part of dance routine as in many performance and show dances and Lindy Hop) , depending on how skilled the dancer is and how intensely dancing is done.

It’s effects on joints are virtually non-injurious as opposed to jogging, where repetitive pounding* takes place on the same joints and may cause osteoarthritis. * Jive or Jitterbug, East Coast Swing do need repetitive pounding on spine and lower body joints but only for a short durations and usually leads to no consequences unless one keep doing only Swing dances hours after hours. Clubs like "Friday night Swing" mainly play Swing dance music, should play with different dance music after short intervals so as to avoid constant pounding on many body joints as occur in many types of Swing dances.

“Dance is a weight-bearing activity, which builds bones” (7).

Dancing helps in bone formation or thickening (osteogenesis) and prevent bone destruction or thinning (osteoporosis). Joints stay healthy with motion ranges increased.

“Recent research has shown that dance, specifically tango, may be an appropriate and effective strategy for ameliorating functional mobility deficits in people who are frail and elderly. Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience declines in functional mobility that may be even more pronounced than those experienced by frail elderly individuals without PD” (6).
Joints

"....the best way to avoid arthritis and remedy current joint discomfort is to continue to use the joints in a controlled manner" as occurs during elegant rise and fall of Waltz dance.(12)
Spinal Column

Ballroom dance frame and posture places the spine in a correct position, more than standing or sitting naturally and .."organs in alignment, which is now thought by many doctors and chiropractors to fight sickness, disease, fatigue and more".(12). There is no specific reference sited by site.

Tango dance seems to improve balance and mobility noted in a recent study (6).

HEART & CIRCULATION

1. Dancing can raise the heart rate anywhere from 80 to 120 (12) (or more beats per minute depending on intensity and status of the dancers). There was no reference in the site.

2. Increase uptake of oxygen by heart. This lead the heart function better.

"Exercise strengthens your heart and lungs.

Regular exercise can leave you breathing easier.

... When your heart and lungs work more efficiently, you'll have more energy to do the things you enjoy" (10).

Cardiovascular work out makes one build stamina and endurance and more energetic.

LUNGS

During dancing, dancers have to take short bursts of deep breaths. So, the lungs get more oxygen. Extra oxygen is distribute through out the body along with increased blood flow and importantly to heart and brain, the most important organs of the body. This is cleansing the inside of the body. To maintain good circulation, dancers should stay adequately hydrated. The more frequently the dancers dance (usually three minutes at a time), better for health. The dancers who sits down to many dances should bear this in mind. Good music always draws the dancers to the floor to dance.

"Many track greats know that a strong set of lungs gets plenty of oxygen, which makes the heart work easier, which in turn allows us to dance and have fun longer! That's why sprinters run a lot of "wind" bursts: brief bursts to up the heart rate quickly, then bringing it down and doing this repeatedly. This is similar to Ballroom dancing (12)." There is no reference to support this in the site.

 

CHEMICAL & HORMONES

IMMUNITY

BRAIN & NERVES

SOCIAL INTERACTION & WELL BEING

SEXUAL FUNCTION

LIVING LONGER

CHEMICALS, HORMONES & IMMUNITY

*-Exercise increases oxygenated blood to the brain.

Exercise lifts mood e.g. “runners high” The explanation is gradually getting clear. Exercise affects the brain by releasing brain’s chemicals (neurochemicals). These brain chemicals affect mood. They are happiness chemicals or “feel good” chemicals and happiness hormones.

Different intensities of exercises create different chemical responses in the body

These are main brain chemicals:

Serotonin, Dopamine, Endorphin, Epinephrine ,Nor epinephrine,

Encephalins, Cortisol, Dynorphins and Oxytocin

Serotonin:

Effects:

When increased:

Elevates mood, increases satiety feeling, and anti-depression.

Causes of increased level:

Low to moderate intensity exercise for a long period of time i.e. rely more on endurance and use more

slow contractions of muscle fibers than fast muscle fibers contractions. e.g. Long distance running, cycling, hiking, swimming, yoga, and sports. Surprisingly, serotonin level also rises when in company with friends and family.

Decrease level:

May cause depression, irritable, moody, and exhausted.

Causes of decreased levels:

stress and/or anxiety, starvation, low carbohydrate diet, and inactivity.

Serotonin & Depression

Serotonin deficiencies are found to be significant among patients suffering from major depression. 80-90% of them can be successfully treated by antidepressant drugs which boost the levels of serotonin (30).

 

Dopamine:

Effects:

Regulates “sleep and wake” cycles. Lack of results in sleeping difficulty.

Diminished during:

“jet lag”, chronic stress, anxiety, trauma, starvation or low carbohydrate diets and in intense exercise.

Increased during:

Increased dopamine levels as happens during long duration exercise at light to moderate intensity.

Endorphins:

Endorphins are the natural morphine or “natural painkillers and natural euphoric (“runners high”). Endorphins are 100 times stronger than equivalent dose of Morphine. Performances are carried out without noticing pain or less pain or disregarding pain and/or unrealized during the performance or even later by most.

Increased:

Increases in any type of exercise by any people, more so with low to moderate intensity exercise and less with intense exercise and also increases with frequency of the exercise.

Decreased:

Substance and alcohol abuse may prevent the full extent of endorphin response to exercise.

 

 

Epinephrine:

Effects:

Raise heart rate, blood pressure, and temperature. It stimulates the nervous system that helps muscle contraction, repress the nervous system that helps digestion, immune response, injury repair, and sleeping. It increases cortical* hormone in the body

Increased:

Response to “Fight or flight” during fight, fright, stress, anxiety of any cause, and starvation. It is temporarily elevated at a high level of exercises, including explosive start and stop efforts. Increase is less in low to moderate intensity level of exercise

Decreased:

Chronic stress and/or anxiety. It is lowered at low intensity levels, or during intervals between alternating intense exertion and rest.

Nor epinephrine

It is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Exercise increases brain concentrations of norepinephrine in brain regions involved in the body's stress response. The hormone portion is released from the gland called adrenal, sits on top of the kidneys. It is also a stress hormone behaves more or less like epinephrine.

Cortisol

Cortical (Hydrocortisone cream is cortisol)

Cortisol is a vital hormone produced by the adrenal gland located on top of the kidneys in the abdomen. Also referred as the "stress hormone" as it is released in response to stress. It has multiple effects in the body, some good and some bad.

While exercise may be natural painkillers and anti depressant,

however, over training or intense exercise performed too late may disrupt sleep pattern and may cause physical injuries.

This segment is based on reference (23).

Other chemicals and hormones

Encephalins:

are natural pain killer similar to endorphine with opiate activity found in the brain and spinal cord. Met-enkephalin is involved in phenomena associated with modulated pain perception, regulation of memory and emotional conditions, food and liquid consumption and regulation of immunological system. It also has an impact on the digestive system motility, gastric as well as in pancreatic secretion and metabolism of sugars. (24)

Dynorphins:

“..plays a major role in pain control and in the regulation of immune response. It also promotes emotional balance, enhances mental activity and reduces feelings that lead to compulsive behavior.”(25)

Oxytocin:Hormone is produced in the brain and released during touching, hugging, sucking and orgasm in both sexes. It facilitates in child birth and breast feeding processes. It plays an essential role as a biological agent of pro social approach behavior such as trust between people, social recognition, bonding and trust (26, 27, 28). Most of us needs to be touched. In one episode of the TV series of "Boston Legal", one of it's lawyer used oxytocin on his body to attract his date or in a way to trust him.

IMMUNE SYSTEM

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Clin Interv Aging. 2007;2(1):3-16.Links

Immunological outcomes of exercise in older adults.

Senchina DS, Kohut ML.

Biology Department, Drake University, Des Moines, IA, USA.

Aging is associated with a dysregulation of the immune system known as immunosenescence. Immunosenescence involves cellular and molecular alterations that impact both innate and adaptive immunity, leading to increased incidences of infectious disease morbidity and mortality as well as heightened rates of other immune disorders such as autoimmunity, cancer, and inflammatory conditions. While current data suggests physical activity may be an effective and logistically easy strategy for counteracting immunosenescence, it is currently underutilized in clinical settings. Long-term, moderate physical activity interventions in geriatric populations appear to be associated with several benefits including reduction in infectious disease risk, increased rates of vaccine efficacy, and improvements in both physical and psychosocial aspects of daily living. Exercise may also represent a viable therapy in patients for whom pharmacological treatment is unavailable, ineffective, or inappropriate. The effects of exercise impact multiple aspects of immune response including T cell phenotype and proliferation, antibody response to vaccination, and cytokine production. However, an underlying mechanism by which exercise affects numerous cell types and responses remains to be identified. Given this evidence, an increase in the use of physical activity programs by the healthcare community may result in improved health of geriatric populations.

PMID: 18044072 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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: Neurol Clin. 2006 Aug;24(3):585-99.

Links

Exercise, inflammation, and innate immunity.

Woods JA, Vieira VJ, Keylock KT.

Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 906 South Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 6180, USA. woods1@uiuc.edu

Regular exercise is protective against several chronic diseases ranging from physiologic diseases such as cardiovascular disease to neurologic diseases such as dementia and depression. Exciting recent research points to chronic inflammation as an underlying contributor to many age-related chronic diseases. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in animals and humans have shown both an acute and a chronic anti-inflammatory effect. Because innate immunity is a key regulator of inflammatory processes, and chronic inflammation contributes to many illnesses, the effect of regular exercise on innate immunity, most importantly macrophages, holds much promise in terms of defining these mechanisms. Unfortunately, the mechanisms responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise have not been elucidated. This article presents several compelling potential mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of exercise, including loss of body fat, reductions in macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue, altered macrophage phenotype in adipose tissue, exercise-induced muscle production of IL-6, or alterations in the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Further investigation to confirm or reject these testable hypotheses will allow better application of exercise therapy to treat and prevent illnesses associated with chronic inflammation.

PMID: 16877125 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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1: Nutr J. 2006 Jun 5;5:15.

Links

Exercise and functional foods.

Aoi W, Naito Y, Yoshikawa T.

Research Center for Sports Medicine, Doshisha University, Kyoto 602-8580, Japan. waoi@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp

Appropriate nutrition is an essential prerequisite for effective improvement of athletic performance, conditioning, recovery from fatigue after exercise, and avoidance of injury. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. In addition, several natural food components have been found to show physiological effects, and some of them are considered to be useful for promoting exercise performance or for prevention of injury. However, these foods should only be used when there is clear scientific evidence and with understanding of the physiological changes caused by exercise. This article describes various "functional foods" that have been reported to be effective for improving exercise performance or health promotion, along with the relevant physiological changes that occur during exercise.

PMID: 16749944 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1526446

 

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: JAMA. 2008 Jan 9;299(2):160-1.

Links

Exercise may boost aging immune system.

Friedrich MJ.

PMID: 18182594 [

===========

J Sports Sci. 2005 May;23(5):501-8.

Links

Effects of competition, exercise, and mental stress on secretory immunity.

Ring C, Carroll D, Hoving J, Ormerod J, Harrison LK, Drayson M.

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK. c.m.ring@bham.ac.uk

It has been suggested that the psychological stress associated with competitive sports events may help to explain the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections due to reductions in secretory immunity. In the current study, we investigated the influence of competitive exercise and psychological stress on secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA). Salivary s-IgA and heart rate were measured in 62 healthy young recreationally active men at rest and, in a between-subjects design, following one of four 8-min tasks: mental arithmetic, cycling at workloads of 60 to 180 W (mean = 146 W), mental arithmetic while cycling, or competitive cycling. Mental arithmetic was associated with significant increases in s-IgA concentration (mean = 49 microg.min(-1)) and s-IgA secretion rate (mean = 25 microg.ml(-1)) compared with rest, while mental arithmetic combined with exercise was associated with a significant increase in s-IgA concentration only (mean = 124 microg.min(-1)). In contrast, competitive exercise and exercise alone did not influence s-IgA concentration or secretion rate. Heart rate increased modestly to mental arithmetic (mean = 7 beats.min(-1)) and substantially, and similarly, to the three exercise tasks (mean = 56(62 beats.min(-1)). The hypothesis that the psychological stress of competitive exercise contributes to increased susceptibility to infection via reductions in s-IgA requires further investigation.

PMID: 16194997 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

=============

Nutr Rev. 2006 Mar;64(3):119-31.

Links

Comment in:

Nutr Rev. 2006 Oct;64(10 Pt 1):476-7; author reply 477.

Can nutrition limit exercise-induced immunodepression?

Gleeson M.

School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom. m.gleeson@lboro.ac.uk

Prolonged exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. To maintain immune function, athletes should eat a well-balanced diet sufficient to meet their energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrient requirements. Consuming carbohydrate during prolonged strenuous exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immune depression. Recent evidence suggests that antioxidant vitamin supplementation may also reduce exercise stress and impairment of leukocyte functions. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of other antioxidants and dietary immunostimulants such as probiotics and echinacea on exercise-induced immune impairment.

PMID: 16572599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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1: Hormones (Athens). 2005 Apr-Jun;4(2):73-89.

Links

Exercise and the stress system.

Mastorakos G, Pavlatou M, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Chrousos GP.

Endocrine Unit, Second Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital, Athens, Greece. mastorak@mail.kapatel.gr

Exercise represents a physical stress that challenges homeostasis. In response to this stressor, autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are known to react and to participate in the maintenance of homeostasis. This includes elevation of cortisol and cathecholamines in plasma. However, sustained physical conditioning in highly trained athletes is associated with a decreased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to exercise. On the other hand, highly trained athletes exhibit a chronic mild hypercortisolism at baseline that may be an adaptive change to chronic exercise. In addition the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 is also activated. Moreover, exercise stimulates the secretion of GH and prolactin, and may influence the type of immunity by stimulating TH2 response profile. Besides, the stress of exercise inhibits the gonadal function, through the production of glucocorticoids and cathecholamines, as well as through activation of the CRH neurons. Nowadays, apart from the beneficial effects of exercise, there is increasing incidence of exercise-related short- and long- term consequences, especially concerning the female athlete that many authors describe as the so-called "exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction". These consequences include amenorrhea, infertility, eating disorders, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease and euthyroid "sick" syndrome. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the above disorders are discussed in this review.

PMID: 16613809 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

============

: Brain Behav Immun. 2005 Sep;19(5):369-70.

Links

Physical activity, exercise, and immune function.

Woods JA.

Department of Kinesiology and Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 61801, USA. woods1@uiuc.edu

PMID: 15908178 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

==========

Sports Med. 2004;34(9):555-66.Links

Exercise immunology: the current state of man and mouse.

Malm C.

Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Christer.malm@anatomy.umu.se

The mechanisms governing the body's response to physical exercise have been investigated from various perspectives including metabolism, nutrition, age and sex. Increased attention to the immune system during recent decades is reflected by a rapidly growing number of publications in the field. This article highlights the most recent findings and only briefly summarises more basic concepts already reviewed by others. Topics include Th1/Th2 cytokine balance, inoculation time, age and immune compensation. Some less investigated areas are discussed including studies in children, the environment and dendritic cells. Because physical exercise enhances some aspects and suppresses other aspects of immunity, the biological significance of alterations in the immune system are unknown. So far, no link between immunological alterations and infection rate has been established and infection after strenuous physical exercise is equally likely to be the result of exercising with an already established rather than a new infection. If there is an increased risk for infections with increased exercise duration and intensity, why do overtrained athletes not display the greatest risk for upper respiratory tract infections? Increased knowledge on immune system modulations with physical exercise is relevant both from a public health and elite athlete's point of view.

PMID: 15294006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

==========

Curr Sports Med Rep. 2003 Oct;2(5):239-42.Links

Current perspective on exercise immunology.

Nieman DC.

Department of Health & Exercise Science, PO Box 32071, 111 River Street, Holmes Convocation Center, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA. niemandc@appstate.edu

By far, the most important finding that has emerged from exercise immunology studies is that positive immune changes take place during each bout of moderate physical activity. Over time, this translates to fewer days of sickness with the common cold and other upper respiratory tract infections. This is consistent with public health guidelines urging individuals to engage in near-daily physical activity of 30 minutes or more. Risk of upper respiratory tract infections can increase when athletes push beyond normal limits. The infection risk is amplified when other factors related to immune function are present, including exposure to novel pathogens during travel, lack of sleep, severe mental stress, malnutrition, or weight loss. Many components of the immune system exhibit adverse change after prolonged, heavy exertion lasting longer than 90 minutes. These immune changes occur in several compartments of the immune system and body (eg, the skin, upper respiratory tract mucosal tissue, lung, blood, and muscle). During this "open window" of impaired immunity (between 3 and 72 hours, depending on the immune measure), viruses and bacteria may gain a foothold, increasing the risk of subclinical and clinical infection. In general, if symptoms are from the neck up, moderate exercise is probably acceptable (and some researchers would argue even beneficial) when an athlete is sick, whereas bed rest and a gradual progression to normal training are recommended when the illness is systemic.

PMID: 12959703 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

==========

1: J Sports Sci. 2003 Dec;21(12):1001-8.Links

Acute impact of submaximal resistance exercise on immunological and hormonal parameters in young men.

Ramel A, Wagner KH, Elmadfa I.

Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland, PO Box Nyi Gardur, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. ramel@hi.is

In this study, we examined the acute effects of submaximal resistance exercise on immunological and hormonal parameters in 7 resistance-trained and 10 non-resistance-trained males. The participants, who were aged 29.5 +/- 7.1 years (mean +/- s), performed submaximal resistance exercise at 75% of their one-repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken before, during, immediately after, and 30, 60 and 120 min after exercise and analysed for leukocyte subpopulations and stress hormones. Total leukocytes, neutrophils and monocytes increased during exercise, reaching their maximum 2 h after exercise. Lymphocytes increased during exercise, T-helper cells returned to resting values after exercise, and natural killer cells and T-suppressor cells decreased below resting values. The CD4/CD8 ratio decreased during exercise but increased during recovery. The resistance-trained participants tended to have lower T-helper cell counts before, during and immediately after exercise and a lower CD4/CD8 ratio during recovery than the non-resistance-trained participants. Plasma cortisol correlated positively with leukocytes during exercise (r = 0.572, P < 0.05), but negatively with T-helper cells 30 and 60 min after exercise (r = -0.573, P < 0.05; r = -0.642, P < 0.01, respectively). Our results indicate that resistance exercise leads to acute changes in leukocyte counts, despite moderate hormonal changes, independent of training status. Regular resistance exercise might lead to decreased T-helper cell counts and a lower CD4/CD8 ratio, which could increase susceptibility to infections.

PMID: 14748457 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

===========

 

=========

1: Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005 Jan;93(4):421-8. Epub 2004 Oct 14.

Links

Intense training: mucosal immunity and incidence of respiratory infections.

Tiollier E, Gomez-Merino D, Burnat P, Jouanin JC, Bourrilhon C, Filaire E, Guezennec CY, Chennaoui M.

Département de physiologie, IMASSA, B.P. 73, 91223, Brétigny-sur-Orge Cedex, France.

This investigation examined the impact of a multistressor situation on salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels, and incidence of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) during the French commando training (3 weeks of training followed by a 5-day combat course). For the URTI, the types of symptoms were classified according to the anatomical location of the infection. Saliva samples were collected (8 a.m.) from 21 males [21 (2) years] before entry into the commando training, the morning following the 3 weeks of training, after the 5-day combat course, and after 1 week of recovery. sIgA, protein and cortisol concentrations were measured. Symptoms of URTI were recorded during the study from health logs and medical examinations. After the 3 weeks of training, the sIgA concentration was not changed, although it was reduced after the 5-day course [from 120 (14) mg l(-1) to 71 (9) mg l(-1), P<0.01]. It returned to pre-training levels within a week of recovery. The incidence of URTI increased during the trial (chi(2)=53.48; P<0.01), but was not related to sIgA. Among the 30 episodes of URTI reported, there were 12 rhino-pharyngitis, 6 bronchitis, 5 tonsillitis, 4 sinusitis and 3 otitis. Cortisol levels were raised after the 3-week training (P<0.01), dropping below baseline after the combat course (P<0.01). Stressful situations have an adverse effect on mucosal immunity and incidence of URTI. However, the relationship between sIgA and illness remained unclear. The large proportion of rhino-pharyngitis indicated that the nasopharyngeal cavity is at a higher risk of infection.

PMID: 15490219 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

"immunity , exercise"Items 1 - 20 of 1566

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Neuroimmunomodulation. 2007;14(3-4):206-12. Epub 2007 Dec 5. Links

Neuroimmunomodulation during exercise: role of catecholamines as 'stress mediator' and/or 'danger signal' for the innate immune response.

Ortega E, Giraldo E, Hinchado MD, Martín L, García JJ, De la Fuente M.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain. orincon@unex.es

Exercise-induced neuroimmunomodulation is clearly accepted today. The present article reviews the main literature concerning the immunomodulatory capacity of catecholamines on the innate immune response during physical exercise, and presents our laboratory's latest results on this topic. It is well known that the effects of exercise on the immune system are mediated by the 'stress hormones and mediators'. Although catecholamines have usually been regarded as immunosuppressors, they may stimulate innate immune response mechanisms (such as phagocytic function) during exercise-induced stress, even without previous antigenic stimulation. The exercise-induced stimulation of the phagocytic response in particular and the innate responses in general have been considered as a prevention strategy of the athlete's organism in order to prevent the entry and/or maintenance of antigens in a situation where the adaptive immune response seems to be depressed, and thus it has been suggested that catecholamines participate as a 'stress mediator' of these effects. Given this hypothesis, it is also suggested here that catecholamines may be the first 'danger signal' to the immune system during exercise-induced stress. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

=========================================

Exercise energizes the immune system

 

 

 

“There is much evidence that prolonged intense exercise suppresses the immune system. However, the intracellular biochemical mechanisms linking exercise and immunosuppression remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that exercise-induced inactivation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) disrupts individual immune cell function, and thus may be linked to exercise-induced immunosuppression.

 

To confirm AMPK's role in immune cells, AMPK activity was assessed in cultured monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells.

 

The effects of single bouts of intense exercise (45 min cycling; 70% VO2 max) on several immune parameters including mononuclear cell AMPK phosphorylation were investigated in 10 male volunteers.

 

There was AMPK inactivation coincided with comparable transient decreases in other immune parameters (salivary IgA levels, serum cytokine levels, monocyte CD36 expression).

Although the brief exercise bout employed here is not sufficient to cause full-fledged immunosuppression, exercise-induced transient decreases in mononuclear cell AMPK activation (as seen in this study) may cause energy depletion within individual immune cells, and therefore have an impact upon their ability to carry out their functions

. Thus, we suggest that prolonged, repeated, high-intensity exercise that leads to clinically relevant immunosuppression may do so via AMPK inactivation within immune cells.

"immunity , exercise"Items 1 - 20 of 1566

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Neuroimmunomodulation. 2007;14(3-4):206-12. Epub 2007 Dec 5. Links

Neuroimmunomodulation during exercise: role of catecholamines as 'stress mediator' and/or 'danger signal' for the innate immune response.

Ortega E, Giraldo E, Hinchado MD, Martín L, García JJ, De la Fuente M.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain. orincon@unex.es

Exercise-induced neuroimmunomodulation is clearly accepted today. The present article reviews the main literature concerning the immunomodulatory capacity of catecholamines on the innate immune response during physical exercise, and presents our laboratory's latest results on this topic. It is well known that the effects of exercise on the immune system are mediated by the 'stress hormones and mediators'. Although catecholamines have usually been regarded as immunosuppressors, they may stimulate innate immune response mechanisms (such as phagocytic function) during exercise-induced stress, even without previous antigenic stimulation. The exercise-induced stimulation of the phagocytic response in particular and the innate responses in general have been considered as a prevention strategy of the athlete's organism in order to prevent the entry and/or maintenance of antigens in a situation where the adaptive immune response seems to be depressed, and thus it has been suggested that catecholamines participate as a 'stress mediator' of these effects. Given this hypothesis, it is also suggested here that catecholamines may be the first 'danger signal' to the immune system during exercise-induced stress. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

=========================================

Exercise energizes the immune system

 

 

 

“There is much evidence that prolonged intense exercise suppresses the immune system. However, the intracellular biochemical mechanisms linking exercise and immunosuppression remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that exercise-induced inactivation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) disrupts individual immune cell function, and thus may be linked to exercise-induced immunosuppression.

 

To confirm AMPK's role in immune cells, AMPK activity was assessed in cultured monocytic Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells.

 

The effects of single bouts of intense exercise (45 min cycling; 70% VO2 max) on several immune parameters including mononuclear cell AMPK phosphorylation were investigated in 10 male volunteers.

 

There was AMPK inactivation coincided with comparable transient decreases in other immune parameters (salivary IgA levels, serum cytokine levels, monocyte CD36 expression).

Although the brief exercise bout employed here is not sufficient to cause full-fledged immunosuppression, exercise-induced transient decreases in mononuclear cell AMPK activation (as seen in this study) may cause energy depletion within individual immune cells, and therefore have an impact upon their ability to carry out their functions

. Thus, we suggest that prolonged, repeated, high-intensity exercise that leads to clinically relevant immunosuppression may do so via AMPK inactivation within immune cells.

Moir H, Butcher L, Jones KP, Hughes MG, Neale H, Jia H, Al-Ismaily Z, Webb R.

AMPK inactivation in mononuclear cells: a potential intracellular mechanism for exercise-induced immunosuppression. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Feb;33(1):75-85.

=========================

 

Salman F, Erten G, Unal M, Kiran B, Salman S, Deniz G, Yilmaz MT, Kayserilioglu A, Dinccag N. Effect of acute maximal exercise on lymphocyte subgroups in type 1 diabetes.Acta Physiol Hung. 2008 Mar;95(1):77-86.

 

 

Exercise, besides its metabolic effects, has positive influence on the immune system, but some forms of exercise may cause trauma for muscle and skeletal systems, they may also support negative effects on the immune system.

 

 

Results indicate that submaximal aerobic exercise might be recommended for type 1 diabetics without any complications because of its positive reflection on metabolic control and no negative effects on the immune system.

 

 

 

 

 

“The effects of 3-week exercise training on the functions of peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were investigated. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages from trained mice was markedly higher”… indicating that exercise training improves macrophage innate immune function.

Kizaki T, Takemasa T, Sakurai T, Izawa T, Hanawa T, Kamiya S, Haga S, Imaizumi K, Ohno H. Adaptation of macrophages to exercise training improves innate immunity.Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Jul 18;372(1):152-6. Epub 2008 May 12.

==

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2008 Feb;33(1):75-85.Links

AMPK inactivation in mononuclear cells: a potential intracellular mechanism for exercise-induced immunosuppression.

Moir H, Butcher L, Jones KP, Hughes MG, Neale H, Jia H, Al-Ismaily Z, Webb R.

Cardiff School of Health Sciences, Centre for Biomedical Sciences, University of Wales Institute Cardiff, Cardiff, Wales CF5 2YB, UK.

There is much evidence that prolonged intense exercise suppresses the immune system. However, the intracellular biochemical mechanisms linking exercise and immunosuppression remain obscure.

Thus, we suggest that prolonged, repeated, high-intensity exercise that leads to clinically relevant immunosuppression may do so via AMPK inactivation within immune cells.

=====1: Br J Sports Med. 2008 Apr 2. [Epub ahead of print]

Links

Regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise improves T cell helper function of type 2 DM patients with an increase in T-bet transcription factor and IL-12 production.

Yeh SH, Chuang H, Lin LW, Hsiao CY, Wang PW, Liu RT, Yang KD.

 

 

“Exercise has been shown to be beneficial in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM); its benefit to immune function, however, remains to be determined.

This study investigated the effect of a 12-week course of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on T cell helper (Th) reaction in type 2 DM patients.”

 

 

A 12-week Tai Chi Chuan exercise exercise program decreases HbA1c levels, along with increase of the Th1 reaction. A combination of TCC with medication may provide even better in both metabolism and immunity of type 2 DM patients.

1:

Multiple components of the immune systems in athletes exhibit transient dysfunction after prolonged, heavy exertion. During this "open window" of impaired immunity, pathogens may gain a foothold, increasing infection risk. Nutritional supplements have been studied as countermeasures to exercise-induced immune changes and infection risk

 

. This review focuses on findings from recent exercise-based studies with macro- and micronutrient supplements, and "advanced" immunonutrition supplements including beta-glucan, curcumin, and quercetin. Results from these studies indicate that immunonutrition supplements have the potential to lessen the magnitude of exercise-induced perturbations in immune function and to reduce the risk of upper respiratory tract infections.”

Nieman DC. Immunonutrition support for athletes.Nutr Rev. 2008 Jun;66(6):310-20.

 

=========

 

 

 

“Cross-sectional studies suggest that moderate physical activity is associated with enhanced resting immune function; however, few randomized controlled trials have investigated this link.”

The effect of “12-mo aerobic exercise, relative to stretching control, on in vitro immune function in a randomized, controlled trial of 115 postmenopausal, overweight, or obese sedentary women, aged 50-75 yr.”

The study showed no effect of aerobic exercise on in vitro immune function.

Campbell PT, Wener MH, Sorensen B, Wood B, Chen-Levy Z, Potter JD, McTiernan A, Ulrich CM. Effect of exercise on in vitro immune function: a 12-month randomized, controlled trial among postmenopausal women.J Appl Physiol. 2008 Jun;104(6):1648-55. Epub 2008 Apr 10.

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BRAIN & NERVES

Beside physical movement, dancing with music timely could be mentally challenging especially with a partner to coordinate, to lead or to follow, steps to remember, maintaen balance, perform to exhibit, move gracefully along line of dance, not to bump or injure other dancers. There are tremendous physical, mental multitasking simultaneously. One need to concentrate to fullest to dancing with a partner along with the music and the surrounding creating a heavenly environment as Fred Astaire sang and danced with Ginger Rogers in Top Hat“ I am in heaven.”(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWiTxsdR6no).

This is a “TRENEMENDOUS BREAK” from daily life’s worries and anxieties even for a short period. These short periods, when gradually get longer and longer, breaking the continuous cycles of ill and negative thoughts are broken, improving mental health. Partnership dancing such as ballroom dancing, ballet and others are usually more mentally involved than aerobic, free style dancing, jogging or walking on a treadmill.

Dancing is an excellent form of entertainment and exercise that

remove or lessen stress, tension , anxiety, depression, improve mood, imparts relaxation, feel better, build confidence and self-esteem, and makes a happier person. This is due to increase level of brain chemicals that stimulates the nerve cells to grow and remembering dance steps and sequences make brain to improve in memory functions (1). More one does, better the result gets. It is like circle.

The hippocampus portion of the brain is like the dynamic memory chip. It gathers all short term memories and convert them to long term memories (17). The hippocampus atrophies as people get older after certain age unless it is used and keep the nerve cells there alive that is “use it or lose it”.

Learn dancing, teach and help other. Teaching other is extremely beneficial for remembering and improvement.

Dancing releases brain chemicals and hormones those makes one happy. Hormone oxytocin bonds people together. Adrenalin further amplifies happy situation, raises the heart rate providing a good work out (29).

Obviously, a good smiling dance partner and good music makes it more alluring.

SOCIAL INTERACTION & WELL BEING

Dancing is a social activity and meeting other people. Most dance classes don't require to come as a couple. Single people meets other single people. Social ties and socializing makes people happy. Dancing improves social skill and thus self confidence and feeling good. At the same time getting some work out done and fun too.

 

SEXUAL FUNCTION

Dancing improves strength, energy, stamina, flexibility and makes the person more attractive. All these are ingredient for good sexual relation.

Because of improved blood flow through out the body, dancers are less likely to have erectile dysfunction (ED). especially one gets older.

 

 

LIVING LONGER

“Greater daily total physical activity level, either from occupation, daily life, or leisure time, may be of benefit in preventing premature death.” This conclusion was drawn from the study performed in Japan, where a total of 83,034 between ages 45-74 years in general Japanese citizens, a non-Western, relatively lean populations . They responded to the questionnaire in 1995-1999 and followed for any cause of death through December 2005. A total of 4564 deaths were recorded.

Increased daily total physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased risk of all-cause mortality in both sexes,

including cancer and heart disease in both sexes, and from cerebro-vascular disease in women, regardless of age, frequency of leisure-time sports or physical exercise, or obesity status, except with a

slight risk reduction among those with a high body mass index.

Inoue M, Iso H, Yamamoto S, Kurahashi N, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study Group.Collaborators (102):

Daily total physical activity level and premature death in men and women: results from a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan (JPHC study).

Ann Epidemiol. 2008 Jul;18(7):522-30. Epub 2008 May 27.

A good attitude about getting old can help live longer by a 7.5 years (12).

"..a regular exercise program (30 minutes of physical activity at least three days a week) can reduce your risk of dying in the next eight years by 40 percent, improve brain function, cut your risk of Alzheimer's disease by up to 60 percent, and blunt the symptoms of depression. This is powerful medicine, given that 80 percent of the population over 65 suffers from at least one chronic condition, and half have two or more, ..(33).

" People who drink moderately, exercise, quit smoking and eat five servings of fruit and vegetables each day live on average 14 years longer than people who adopt none of these behaviors, " (34).

PREGNANCY

 

 

 

 

“Exercise in pregnancy could prevent and limit adverse maternal and fetal morbidities and provide a long-term benefit through reduction of maternal weight gain during pregnancy, and improvement in cardiovascular fitness. Pregnancy emerges as a unique time for behavior modification.”

Gavard JA, Artal R. Effect of exercise on pregnancy outcome.Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jun;51(2):467-80

DANCE AS TREATMENT AND/OR PREVENTION OF DISEASES

==============

DANCE AS TREATMENT AND/OR PREVENTION OF DISEASES

Here is what the Stanford Cancer Center has to say about the scientific healthy benefits of music and dance therapy:Dance Therapy uses movement to improve mental and physical well-being. It is a recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals and comprehensive clinical cancer centers. Several clinical reports suggest that dance therapy helps people:

develop positive body image

improve self-concept and self-esteem

reduce stress, anxiety, and depression

decrease isolation, chronic pain, and body tension

increase communication skills

encourage a sense of well-being

The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Experts have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins, enkephalins, oxytocin, etc.), which create a state of happiness and well-being. There are direct neural connections to the lymph nodes, which control the release of disease-fighting white blood cells. Self-image greatly influences our health. (See Psychoneuroimmunology) (17)

 

 

“Here is what the Stanford Cancer Center has to say about the scientific healthy benefits of music and dance therapy:
Dance Therapy uses movement to improve mental and physical well-being. It is a recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals and comprehensive clinical cancer centers. Several clinical reports suggest that dance therapy helps people:

develop positive body image
improve self-concept and self-esteem
reduce stress, anxiety, and depression
decrease isolation, chronic pain, and body tension
increase communication skills
encourage a sense of well-being
energize the immune system

The physical benefits of dance therapy as exercise are well documented. Experts have shown that physical activity is known to increase special neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins, enkephalins, oxytocin, etc.), which create a state of happiness and well-being. There are direct neural connections to the lymph nodes, which control the release of disease-fighting white blood cells. Self-image greatly influences our health. (See Psychoneuroimmunology)
The total body movement of dance enhances the functions of our circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular and immune systems. Dance therapy can help us stay physically fit and enjoy the pleasure of creating rhythmic body motions. When combine with pleasant smiles, holding hands, and general merriment, joyful dancing has many measurable health benefits.
Music Therapy uses music to promote healing and enhance quality of life. It is a complementary therapy that is used along with other cancer treatments to help patients cope mentally and physically with their diagnosis. Music therapy may involve listening to music, creating music, singing, and discussing music, in addition to guided imagery with music.
Scientific studies have shown the positive value of music therapy on the body, mind, and spirit of children and adults. Music has been found to decrease the overall intensity of a patient's experience of stressful pain and can result in a reduced dependence on pain medication.
Music can help accomplish the following:

relieve stress, apprehension, and fear
improve mood
lower heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate
relieve depression
relieve sleeplessness
relieve muscle tension and provide relaxation
energize the immune system

Musical rhythm is beneficial to our bodies. Our muscles, including the heart muscle, synchronize to the beat of pleasant music. Some classical music approximates the rhythm of the resting heart (70 beats per minute). This music can slow a heart that is beating too fast.

Some of the ways music is used a therapy include:

music and rhythm improvisation
receptive music listening
song writing

lyric discussion
imagery and relaxation
performance of music

When music therapy and dance therapy are combined, they can have a synergistic effect on joy and a general sense of well being.
It is very sad that so many depressed and lonely people have yet to comprehend the joyful magic of getting involved in simple dance classes and casual social dancing with many different smiling dance partners.
..... Music appreciation and even social dance classes have been given to senior citizens suffering mild-to-moderate neurodegenerative disease and dementia, with very promising results. It can even delay the onset, or reduce the impact, of cancer.{17)


And whether you like to kick up your heals to hip hop, classical or country, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) says that dancing can:

Lower your risk of coronary heart disease
Decrease blood pressure
Help you manage your weight

Strengthen the bones
ALZHEIMER & DEMENTIA
This was attributed engagement of the dancer's mind to dance music.
increase blood flow to the brain during dancing, social effect lead
to less stress, depression and loneliness, memorization of dance steps and working with a partner. All these are teasing the brain creating a situation of mental aerobic exercise (14,15).
a regular exercise program (30 minutes of physical activity at least three days a week) can reduce your risk of dying in the next eight years by 40 percent, improve brain function, cut your risk of Alzheimer's disease by up to 60 percent (31/32/33).
Ballroom dancing at least twice a week made people less likely to develop dementia. Research also has shown that some people with Alzheimer's disease are able to recall forgotten memories when they dance to music they used to know (15)
==
1. Exercise improves your mood.(10)
Need to blow off some steam after a stressful day? A workout at the gym or a brisk 30-minute walk can help you calm down.
Exercise stimulates various brain chemicals, which may leave you feeling happier and more relaxed than you were before you worked out. You'll also look better and feel better when you exercise regularly, which can boost your confidence and improve your self-esteem. Exercise even reduces feelings of depression and anxiety.


Parkinson’s disease:
A 12-day prospective, blinded pilot-study of waltz-lessons in 5 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 5 age-matched depressed patients was performed. AD patients showed a significant beneficial effect in procedural learning whereas depressed patients did not (21).
PREVENTIVE CARE:
24 cognitively normal older social dancers were compared with 84 age-, sex-, and education-matched older nondancers participating in study.
Motor and cognitive performance was assessed using standard methods. The results suggested that long-term social dancing may be associated with better balance and manner of walking (22).
-----------------------

DEPRESSION:

Exercise Fuels the Brain's Stress Buffers
http://www.apahelpcenter.org/articles/article.php?id=25
Exercise may improve mental health by helping the brain cope better with stress, according to research into the effect of exercise on neurochemicals involved in the body's stress response.
Preliminary evidence suggests that physically active people have lower rates of anxiety and depression than sedentary people.
---------------




Chronic diseases.(10,18)
Prevent or manage:
Improve mental faculty e.g. dementias
Heart disease: Improves circulation, lower blood pressure, improve cholesterols, and reduce stress
Osteoporosis: Prevent bone fractures.
Osteoarthritis: Help in pain control and keep mobile,
High blood pressure: lower blood pressure, reduce stress.
Cholesterol : Increases "good," cholesterol or HDL (high-density lipoprotein), and decreases "bad," cholesterol or LDL (low-density lipoprotein). This prevents the buildup of plaques in arteries and keep
blood flowing without obstruction. Thus prevents tokes and heart attacks.
Type 2 diabetes: lower blood sugar, lower body weight
Weight control
Cancer: Dancing and music as supportive therapy to improve mental and physical well-being are used in many clinical cancer centers.

Dance and music therapy helps to develop

reduce stress, anxiety, and depression and improve the immune system
Sleep: Help to fall asleep and to deep sleep. Normal sleep pattern can improve concentration, patient, mood and productivity.
"Interrupted or poor sleep could be a contributing factor to a less than optimal muscle and strength response to exercise" (3).
Sleep affect so many aspect of mental and physical health
Sleep deprivation disturbs sugar metabolism and feel hungry and eat more, and put on weight.
Sleep deprived lacks interest in sex.
Accident prone.
MUSIC: Change When music therapy and dance therapy are combined, they can have a synergistic effect on joy and a general sense of well being.

------------------------------------------------------------
TYPES OF BALLROOM DANCING & OTHER SIMILAR DANCING
Competitions Ballroom dancing is divided into:
Latin: Cha Cha, Samba, Rumba, Paso Doble, Jive

And

Standard/Modern: Waltz (international), Foxtrot (international), Viennese Waltz, Quickstep, Tango)
There are many other popular dances as well.
SMOOTH

Swing (East Coast, West Coast, & Lindy Hop) & Jive
Waltz (American, International & Viennese)

LATINS OR LATIN FLARE

Salsa/Mambo and variations Cumbia, Cuban salsa
Tango (American style, International style and Argentine)
Rumba
Bolero
Samba
Lambada
Bosa Nova

OTHER TYPES DANCINGS

Aerobic

Ballet

Belly dancing: Middle Eastern

Clogging
Contra (type of square dance)

Flamenco

Folk dancing
Hip-hop

Jazz
Line dancing
Modern
Square dancing

Tap

--

There are common benefits of all dances in varying degree and

are discussed in the in various sections of this article..


Specific Benefits of Different Dances (14).
Each type of dance styles offers some common health benefits and some different health benefits. Some are more strenuous than others.

Belly Dancing:

Tone and firm your arms and shoulders (18)
Helps prevent lower back problems (14)
Helps prepare women for childbirth (14)

Ballroom Dancing (14)

Conditions the body
Strengthens and tones buttocks, thighs, legs and body
Increases flexibility and balance

Salsa Dancing & Aerobic (18):

Loose weight

Promotes sweating and thus the release of harmful toxins from body.

May help lower blood pressure and improve cholesterol levels
Can lead to a reduced heart rate over time

WHEN TO START

Consult a physician in following situations
before take up any type of dance lesson so as to find out if there is any

restrictions. If your doctor hasn't restricted your activity in any way, you're ready to rock, says (1)

Starting is difficult and quitting is easy. It is easier, going with a friend or just visit a ballroom dance place and, watch.

Some will pick up more quickly and other slow learner.

Over a period, this is usually overcome by development of brain muscle memory.

Body becomes more flexible on practice and persistence.


Here's some advice for beginners from New York dance therapist Jane Wilson Cathcart, LMSW, ADTR, CMA:
Look for a good teacher who emphasizes what you CAN do, not your limits.

Don't be a perfectionist about it.

Don't worry about your size. Dance is for everyone. Get into the music, as well as the movement.
"Take in all the good feedback you're getting.

"We are usually our own worst critic, … Think of how many other times your critical judge has limited you from doing something."
New skills can bring confidence and break down self-imposed inhibitions. At parties and social events, confident dancers can head toward the dance floor feeling good about themselves, without an unhealthy martini.

The coolest dance begins with one step.

The more you do it, the better you will become. The more energy you invest today, the more you will have tomorrow.

I couldn’t keep up with group dance classes, so I took some private lessons so I wouldn’t fall so far behind.

too tall, too fat, too short


”From Awkward To Popular…
Other good dancers now ask me to dance and pose for pictures with them. I’ve lost 60 pounds and I have the muscle tone and energy to dance non-stop for three hours several times a week. I never dreamed that any of this would happen to the awkward person I used to be……Take the first step and then keep on dancing forever. Joyful Dancing is very addictive for many good reasons. Even a small amount of dancing is progress in a happy, healthy direction.”(17)
“Nobody cares if you can’t dance well. Just get up and dance.” -Dave Barry (8)
Ready to meet new people if physically fit!
Are you single and you couple?

Music Therapy uses music to promote healing and enhance quality of life. It is a complementary therapy that is used along with other cancer treatments to help patients cope mentally and physically with their diagnosis. Music therapy may involve listening to music, creating music, singing, and discussing music, in addition to guided imagery with music.

Scientific studies have shown the positive value of music therapy on the body, mind, and spirit of children and adults. Music has been found to decrease the overall intensity of a patient's experience of stressful pain and can result in a reduced dependence on pain medication.

Music can help accomplish the following:

relieve stress, apprehension, and fear

improve mood

lower heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate

relieve depression

relieve muscle tension and provide relaxation

 

Musical rhythm is beneficial to our bodies. Our muscles, including the heart muscle, synchronize to the beat of pleasant music. Some classical music approximates the rhythm of the resting heart (70 beats per minute). This music can slow a heart that is beating too fast.

 

Some of the ways music is used a therapy include:

music and rhythm improvisation

receptive music listening

song writing

lyric discussion

imagery and relaxation

performance of music

 

When music therapy and dance therapy are combined, they can have a synergistic effect on joy and a general sense of well being.

It is very sad that so many depressed and lonely people have yet to comprehend the joyful magic of getting involved in simple dance classes and casual social dancing with many different smiling dance partners.

..... Music appreciation and even social dance classes have been given to senior citizens suffering mild-to-moderate neurodegenerative disease and dementia, with very promising results. It can even delay the onset, or reduce the impact, of cancer (17).

HOW & WHEN TO START

Before you take any type of dance lesson’s you should talk to your doctor and find out if there is any kind of restrictions on your work out.” (18)

http://www.joyfulaging.com/JoyfulDancing.htm

Joyful Dancing - by Larry Hartweg

 

"A lot of times, when people come into the studio, it's because there's been a change in their life: a divorce or they've been through a period of depression. They (continue) coming in, and you see a big change. After a while, they're walking in with a sunny expression. You know it's the dancing that's doing that," she says.

 

============

Check Your Ego at the Door

Here's some advice for beginners from New York dance therapist Jane Wilson Cathcart, LMSW, ADTR, CMA:

Look for a good teacher who emphasizes what you CAN do, not your limits. Don't be a perfectionist about it. Don't worry about your size. Dance is for everyone. Get into the music, as well as the movement.

"Take in all the good feedback you're getting and give your inner judge a couple of dollars to go to the movies," says Cathcart. "We are usually our own worst critic, … Think of how many other times your critical judge has limited you from doing something."

New skills can bring confidence and break down self-imposed inhibitions. At parties and social events, confident dancers can head toward the dance floor feeling good about themselves, without an unhealthy martini.

"Lay the pathwork of positivity through it," says Cathcart. "The coolest dance begins with one step. The rest will follow." The more you do it, the better you will become. The more energy you invest today, the more you will have tomorrow.

From Awkward To Popular

When I first started dancing regularly, I was too tall, too fat, very awkward, and a painfully slow learner. I couldn’t keep up with group dance classes, so I took some private lessons so I wouldn’t fall so far behind. After two years of dancing twice a week, I was confident meeting new dance partners on public dance floors. I was hungry to learn and not satisfied with standard dance patterns. I watched dance competitions (although I did not compete myself).

Soon, I began inventing new dance patterns to go with my unique joyful dance style. I taught myself to lead two dance partners at once that I had never danced with before. It is a fun way to meet two women standing alone. My signature moves often surprise them, and they giggle a lot (which I love).

Other good dancers now ask me to dance and pose for pictures with them. I’ve lost 60 pounds and I have the muscle tone and energy to dance non-stop for three hours several times a week. I never dreamed that any of this would happen to the awkward person I used to be.

For me, dancing is not about finding a romantic partner. I’m not in some adversarial testosterone battle with other men who can’t dance. Social dancing is all about meeting MANY interesting people, having lots of energetic Platonic friends (men and women), laughing, having good clean fun, and being highly motivated to dance aerobically for hours several times a week.

Take the first step and then keep on dancing forever. Joyful Dancing is very addictive for many good reasons. Even a small amount of dancing is progress in a happy, healthy direction.”(17)

“Nobody cares if you can’t dance well. Just get up and dance.” -Dave Barry (8)

Ready to meet new people if physically fit!

Are you single and you couple?


 

What You Can Do To Start Dancing (8)

Dancing seems like a really unappealing thing to a lot of people, probably even to you, especially when it comes to ballroom dances - as it’s not particularly at its trendiest now. However, its definitely still one of the most romantic things you can do with your partner and it can become something very memorable.Dancing will be here to stay for a long time and its not just cultural, it also remains as one of the best relationship-strengthening activities that you can do with a partner

If you’re in a relationship, go ahead and ask your partner if he or she is interested in taking on dancing lessons with you, or you could simply get some dancing DVDs and practice with your partner at the comfort of your own homes where you can have all the privacy and of course, some warm tender loving, with just the two of you spending quality time together, alone.

Just imagine dancing in the moonlight with your partner at the shore, even a balcony will do - watching over the beautiful horizon and outdoors.

Surely all this sounds appealing to you.

…and don’t forget, you also get smarter!

And if you have no partner, fret not!

Simply - look for a dance class near you. It may not sound appealing yet, but read on.

Dancing is a social activity, and you get to meet along of people. It’s also a natural icebreaker, aside from being one of the most exhilarating dating activities.

When you join a dancing class, you will get a dance partner or even multiple dance partners, and you get to go through the fun process of learning how to dance, where everybody makes mistakes together and doesn’t worry because everyone is at the same level. You might even meet your dream date at a place like this. Soon enough, you’ll be able to advance to where I was speaking just before this and have the most romantic moments!

If you’re a guy, one huge point of learning how to dance is that it boosts your confidence. When you know your moves and you’re not afraid to show it, it becomes very easy to ask for a dance at a date. This even extends to general confidence in your dates, as you’ll learn how to handle a woman when you learn to dance.

Ladies, when you learn how to dance, you gain grace, poise and the charm of a dancer - and surely, you’d prefer a man who can dance! Also, you also make dancing more romantic and enjoyable during a date.

Just imagine dancing with the partner of your dreams.

Its a very pleasant thought.

Are these reasons enough to get you dancing?

 

How You Can Start Dancing(8)


You can see a list of different dances you can learn here. Among those are the famous ones you know like The Waltz and the Tango.

Look for advertisements in the newspapers, or simply ask around to find out where you can learn dancing. It’s way worth the investment when you can meet new people, especially since you might be able to meet the person of your dreams. Dancing triggers romantic thoughts and you’re more likely to fall in love there, and this applies to your dance partner too!

Get DVDs that teach dancing. It’s only advisable for couples to do this because it’s really hard to learn alone. Plus, you won’t get to meet new people! A great place to get these DVDs is at The Dance Store Online.

Intimidated by going alone? It’s actually better to go alone, because you will naturally spend more time with the people there instead of hanging out with your clique all the time. Also, you’ll be free to go places after the lessons without any pressure because you’re alone!

Still intimidated?! Find a friend who might be interested in taking dance lessons with you. There won’t be a lot of embarrassing moments because your friend would be learning too, and he’s might even make mistakes than you do!

Join the dance club at your school/institution and you don’t only get to meet new people, you meet people of your age group that you can clique with without worries of a generation gap.

Simply, ask your partner to learn dancing with you. This is for the couples out there, and its really easy to do because theres two willing!

Hopefully, you got an insight on dancing and how great it can be for the brain and becoming smarter!(8)

-----------

WHEN & HOW TO START

BEFORE STARTING

PHYSICAL SHAPE

DANCE SCHOOL

DANCE TEACHERS

FINDING A PARTNER

COMPETETION DANCING

COST & COSTUMES

===

http://www.joyfulaging.com/JoyfulDancing.htm

Joyful Dancing - by Larry Hartweg

 

 

 

 

 

"A lot of times, when people come into the studio, it's because there's been a change in their life: a divorce or they've been through a period of depression. They (continue) coming in, and you see a big change. After a while, they're walking in with a sunny expression. You know it's the dancing that's doing that," she says. =======

BEFORE STARTING

Would-be dancers should consult their doctors first, especially if they have any health problems, says Cram.(7). If your doctor hasn't restricted your activity in any way, you're ready to rock, says (1)

Prospective dancers should consult with their doctors first, especially if they have any known health problems or physical limitations.)” (17)

 

WHAT KIND OF PHYSICAL SHAPE

If you experience unusual pain then stop until you understand why. (See No Pain No Gain Is Insane) You may need the advice of a physician before participating in any form of moderate-to-vigorous exercise, particularly if you have difficulty with your heart or any of the above items.(17)

“If your doctor hasn't restricted your activity in any way, you're ready to rock, says Beckford. If you haven't been active or seen the doctor in a while, ask yourself the following questions:

Has your doctor ever said you have a heart condition and that you should only do physical activity recommended by a doctor?

Do you feel pain in your chest when you do physical activity?

In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not doing physical activity?

Do you lose your balance because of dizziness, or do you ever lose consciousness?

Do you have a bone or joint problem that could get worse from a change in your physical activity?

Is your doctor currently prescribing drugs (for example, water pills) for blood pressure or a heart condition?

Do you know of any other reason why you should not do physical activity?

Source: Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q), Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, Inc., 1994

You should make an appointment to see your doctor if you answer "yes" to any of the questions above” (5)

FINDING A PARTNER

Web sites.

 

 

DANCE TEACHERS & LESSON

Most dance teachers are friendly and non critical person with some exceptions. Some teachers can get annoyed if the student can perform to their expectation. This happens more often, when student go to take more advanced classes beyond their capability.

There are dance lessons in DVD, CD and Video are sold via internet and dance camps. Price varies from $15 to $50/copy

Check Your Ego at the Door

Here's some advice for beginners from New York dance therapist Jane Wilson Cathcart, LMSW, ADTR, CMA:

Look for a good teacher who emphasizes what you can do, not your limits.

Don't be a perfectionist about it.

Don't worry about your size. Dance is for everyone.

Get into the music, as well as the movement.

"Take in all the good feedback you're getting and give your inner judge a couple of dollars to go to the movies," says Cathcart.

"We are usually our own worst critic," says Cathcart. "Think of how many other times your critical judge has limited you from doing something."

New skills can bring confidence. At parties and social events, dancers may head to the dance floor feeling good about themselves without a martini's encouragement, Richards jokes.

"Lay the pathwork of positivity through it," says Cathcart. "The coolest dance begins with one step. The rest will follow."

DANCE SCHOOLS

The great thing about dancing is that anyone can do it, you don’t have to be flexible or be in shape. This will come with the territory of taking dance lessons.

There are so many different types of dance lessons that you can take. I am sure if you drove around your neighborhood you would find at least a half dozen schools right in your area.” (18)

Contact your local gym, YM/YWCA, recreation/community center, or dance studio to see what they offer

Choosing a Groove(1)

If you don't know what kind of dance you might like, the best thing to do is experiment. If you used to dance and are getting back into it, you can pick up where you left off. Some adults decide to resume ballet classes after years of having had them as children.

If you take a class, give it some time before deciding you don't like it, recommends Colleen Dean, program coordinator for the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Try going with a friend and keep with it for at least a month. You can find dance classes at a dance school, dance studio, health club, or community recreation center. Some YMCAs, churches, or synagogues offer group dance classes followed by a social hour.

Here are some forms of dance you might want to explore:

Where to Boogie(1)

Some dance schools or dance halls hold social dances that are open to the public on certain nights of the week. Often, you can take a class before the dance begins.

You also can join a dance club that meets regularly at different places, or join an amateur or professional dance troupe.

Jim Maxwell, 61, helped form a dance troupe seven years ago that performs at local retirement communities, nursing homes, and community events in the Northern Virginia area. The 37 members, who perform clogging and Irish dance routines, range in age from 9 to 62. The group gives Maxwell and his fellow cloggers an opportunity to perform a useful community service while having fun and staying fit.

"We get the benefits of physical activity, but we also serve our community," says Maxwell, who started dancing because he needed physical activity but hated to exercise. To help recruit people for the troupe, Maxwell began teaching clogging, tap, and Irish dance to all ages at local recreation centers. He now teaches six classes.

"Dancing is a lot of fun, and I like performing," says Maxwell. "[Plus], we actually do things for people. It's not just exercising as an indulgence." (1)

Doing Your Own Thing(1)

If you're afraid you have two left feet or are short on time, you can do your own thing just by turning on some music and dancing around the house. Or turn a night on the town into a dance party by finding a hot spot with a good dance band.

You also can "sweat to the oldies" or sashay around your living room with dance videos that you can buy or rent from your local library or video store (check to see if they're available). So crank up the volume and shake a leg. Once you start dancing, you might not want to stop!(14)

If you don't know what kind of dance you might like, the best thing to do is experiment. If you used to dance and are getting back into it, you can pick up where you left off. Some adults decide to resume ballet classes after years of having had them as children.

If you take a class, give it some time before deciding you don't like it, recommends Colleen Dean, program coordinator for the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. Try going with a friend and keep with it for at least a month. You can find dance classes at a dance school, dance studio, health club, or community recreation center. Some YMCAs, churches, or synagogues offer group dance classes followed by a social hour.

Here are some forms of dance you might want to explore:

Square dancing

Swing (traditional or West Coast, which is more technical)

Line dancing, which can be done to country, rock, pop, or salsa music

Folk dancing, which can reconnect you to your ethnic roots or introduce you to a whole new culture

Ballroom

Belly dancing

Salsa

Flamenco

Jazz

Tap

Modern

Clogging (double-time stomping and tap steps)

Contra (square dance moves in lines with men and women switching places)

Where to Boogie

Some dance schools or dance halls hold social dances that are open to the public on certain nights of the week. Often, you can take a class before the dance begins.

You also can join a dance club that meets regularly at different places, or join an amateur or professional dance troupe.

Jim Maxwell, 61, helped form a dance troupe seven years ago that performs at local retirement communities, nursing homes, and community events in the Northern Virginia area. The 37 members, who perform clogging and Irish dance routines, range in age from 9 to 62. The group gives Maxwell and his fellow cloggers an opportunity to perform a useful community service while having fun and staying fit.

"We get the benefits of physical activity, but we also serve our community," says Maxwell, who started dancing because he needed physical activity but hated to exercise. To help recruit people for the troupe, Maxwell began teaching clogging, tap, and Irish dance to all ages at local recreation centers. He now teaches six classes.

"Dancing is a lot of fun, and I like performing," says Maxwell. "[Plus], we actually do things for people. It's not just exercising as an indulgence."

Doing Your Own Thing

If you're afraid you have two left feet or are short on time, you can do your own thing just by turning on some music and dancing around the house. Or turn a night on the town into a dance party by finding a hot spot with a good dance band.

You also can "sweat to the oldies" or sashay around your living room with dance videos that you can buy or rent from your local library or video store (check to see if they're available). So crank up the volume and shake a leg. Once you start dancing, you might not want to stop!

COST & COSTUMES

EXPENSES

If you can walk, and you like the joy of music, but you don’t have a nearby friend or life partner, then consider taking group social dance lessons. These classes usually are much less expensive than private dance lessons. Many community-sponsored senior citizen dance classes are subsidized and may cost nothing at all to attend. Often, group dance lessons invite you to rotate partners frequently, so you get to meet, smile, hold hands, and maybe even have a few platonic superficial hugs, from other people who need happy casual friends as much as you do.

Humans are social creatures. Do not sit home alone and moan. Get out and enjoy social life. Meet many potential new friends and dance partners, (who can help you eliminate your own harmful feelings of loneliness, self doubt and destructive depression).(17)

 

 

Many dancers spend $25 to $50 a week. Those who plan to compete and or take private lesson, the expense can be easily over$100/week. Usually group lessons varies from $10 to 12.

with or without further dancing for 2-4 hours. Private lesson could cost $50 to 75 per hour. Most dance lovers dance 2-3 times a week.

There are many inexpensive and even free dance classes in most cities usually associated with church or senior groups

 

 

“Costs/special equipment:

Dancing shoes are a must – they offer your feet support and allow you to spin with style. Prices start from around $100

Ladies will need to wear a dress or skirt – the cut will depend on the style of dance. If you decide to compete, you'll need a gown. For all those diamantes you'll be shelling out around $1000 for a Latin gown and $2000 for a Standard/Modern gown.

Casual group classes start at around $15

Private tuition start at around $60” (28)

 

DANCE WITHDRAWL

In view of present knowledge, there is real possibility of dance withdrawal.

“Nature's handiwork in designing our mental and physical response to rhythmic dancing directly and immediately "blocks the blues" and wipes out depression. Endorphins produce a wonderful overall feeling of well being that our entire body is designed to respond to very well. Joyful dancing is extremely addictive, and for thousands of years the religious texts of many cultures have recorded that music and dancing can be very good things.

Adrenalin is an endorphin amplifier and a powerful antidepressant. It is almost impossible to feel lonely, unhappy or depressed while smiling, laughing, holding hands and dancing with a happy partner. Dancing causes sluggish sadness to be replaced by spiritual pleasure, joy, and one of the highest possible echelons of human motivational energy.

The more we dance, the more we want to. It is similar to the principle of human energy – The more energy we expend today, the more energy we will have tomorrow.” (17)

 

 

 

DANCE MUSICS

“If you are alone, you need to begin by selecting happy music with a pleasant beat. If you pick familiar music, it can help unlock and energize old memories of the sights, sounds and good feelings when you first enjoyed the melody.

If we listen to interesting, new, unfamiliar, upbeat music (with a positive message), it will help revitalize our mental capacity to form new rhythmic memories.”(17)

Recent brain image studies have been shown that musical stimuli activated the areas of brain associated with emotional behaviors. There is release of many beneficial brain chemicals such as endorphins (100 time stronger than morphine), endocannabinoids, dopamine and nitric oxide,

It has become evident that music therapy could itself be beneficial to

Alzheimer & Parkinson diseases, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety and autism disorders (5). Music was found to beneficial as therapy for depression and anxiety resulted in association with total knee joint replacement (19). There are 19 small studies showing beneficial effects of music therapy by itself on many mental problems (20).

 

Tools For Healthy Living – Fit For Dancing

How can older adults revitalize their lives with rhythmic dancing?

If you are alone, you need to begin by selecting happy music with a pleasant beat. If you pick familiar music, it can help unlock and energize old memories of the sights, sounds and good feelings when you first enjoyed the melody.

If we listen to interesting, new, unfamiliar, upbeat music (with a positive message), it will help revitalize our mental capacity to form new rhythmic memories.

 

 

 

 

MARITAL PROBLEM

There is no study. Problem arises when one partner is addicted to dancing and the other partner has no interest.

Time to time, this lead to separation and break down of relationship.

How to deal this problem? Give this article to your partner to read.

This article will make everybody to do some form of physical activity. Considering many aspects, of all physical activities, dancing seems best. It is good to remind the partner that practice makes perfect.

What you have learn from this paper, most likely your partner will agree and inclined to take up dancing at least for health reason..

Bring the partner to class to learn dancing and help him or her without overwhelming.

DANCE MUSICS

Music is complimentary to dance. Music by itself can be an entity, can create any kind of mood and therapeutic. A beautiful dance music can make people feel to dance and pull them to floor to dance. If the dance is not evoking, people may just stay seated. Dance without appropriate music is dance with no life. Similarly, an unattractive music is basically a dead music.

An ideal dance music: Pleasant, exciting, good lyric, good beat

Music Therapy uses music to promote healing and enhance quality of life. It is a complementary therapy that is used along with other cancer treatments to help patients cope mentally and physically with their diagnosis. Music therapy may involve listening to music, creating music, singing, and discussing music, in addition to guided imagery with music.

Scientific studies have shown the positive value of music therapy on the body, mind, and spirit of children and adults. Music has been found to decrease the overall intensity of a patient's experience of stressful pain and can result in a reduced dependence on pain medication.

Music can help accomplish the following:

relieve stress, apprehension, and fear

improve mood

lower heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate

relieve depression

relieve sleeplessness

relieve muscle tension and provide relaxation

energize the immune system

Musical rhythm is beneficial to our bodies. Our muscles, including the heart muscle, synchronize to the beat of pleasant music. Some classical music approximates the rhythm of the resting heart (70 beats per minute). This music can slow a heart that is beating too fast.

Self-expression in music therapy can reveal subconscious thoughts and feelings and be therapeutic in the same way psychotherapy has shown to be therapeutic.

The process of creating art (music, painting, sculpture or dance) can be beneficial. Music therapy can be incorporated into many different environments. People can listen to music alone or in groups, with trained therapists or without. Music therapy can be as simple as someone listening to a CD. Specially selected music can be broadcast into hospital rooms. Music therapy can be augmented with biofeedback brainwave monitors to customize the music to individual needs. Music therapists design music therapy sessions for a wide variety of needs. Some of the ways music is used a therapy include:

music and rhythm improvisation

receptive music listening

song writing

lyric discussion

imagery and relaxation

performance of music

In a music therapy session designed to promote self-expression, a therapist may create a musical and emotional environment that encourages the subject to respond by revealing personal experiences or feelings. The session might incorporate speech and drama as well as music. Or, the therapist might use singing and discussions. By playing music with lyrics, a therapist can encourage subjects to make up words that are then formed into a positive, unique, happy song.

When music therapy and dance therapy are combined, they can have a synergistic effect on joy and a general sense of well being.

DIFFERENCE FROM JOGGING, AEROBIC, TREADMILL

“Dancing is ever so much nicer than the “going nowhere” metaphor of a boring treadmill or repetitive exercise machine. Dancing requires active kinesthetic / special thought processes, which develop over time and measurable improve brain function through a process called Mental Aerobics.” (17)

Consistently maintaining physical activity is much easier if it also is a fun social activity, rather than a boring treadmill.” (17,14)

Items

Ballroom Dancing

Aerobic

Jogging/Treadmill

A low impact activity

+

++

+++

Intensity

Mild to vigorous

Moderate to vigorous

Moderate to vigorous

Muscle groups involved

Large

Front, back & others

Large, mainly front,? back & others

Large& mainly front

Joint injuries

+

++

+++

Age group

Any age group

Restrictive to extreme high age

Restrictive to extreme high age

Fitness level

Should be fit

Should be extremely fit

Should be extremely fit

Emphasis

Fun, entertainment & competition.

Weight loss depend dances e.g. Salsa

Workout, weight loss, & improved cardiovascular

effect.

Workout, weight loss, & improved cardiovascular

effect..

Mental benefits

Stress reliever

Feel better

+ outlook

++++

++++

++++

++++

++

++

++

++

+

+

+

+

Therapy for various disease

Many

Some

Few

 

 

 

"Plus, dancing requires using muscles that you may not even know you had."

"If you're dancing the foxtrot, you're taking long, sweeping steps backwards. That's very different than walking forward on a treadmill or taking a jog around the neighborhood ... Ballroom dancing works the backs of the thighs and buttock muscles differently from many other types of exercise," says Ken Richards, professional dancer and spokesman for USA Dance, the national governing body of DanceSport (competitive ballroom dancing). (14)

-----

16

“.... I prefer activity, especially ballroom dancing. Dancing is a great to ground because it forces you to develop a global awareness of the body. You can’t just focus on an arm or a leg. You have to feel the entire body at the same time, in balance, coordinated, moving through space, and in harmony with music. And unlike psychic work, time and timing are critically important............ What makes it different from modern dance or freestyle, is that ballroom is all about partnership, not individuality. Not only need you be aware of your own body and balance, but sensitive to that of your partner. When that's done right, it is a very special feeling—one I can't begin to describe in words. ............ It’s not about looking good for others. ......... it’s fun. More than that, your body and soul will both benefit." (1)

DANCING INCREASES INTELLIGENCE (8)

And Makes You Smarter ?

EXPLANATIONS provided by the author:

1. Dancing increases serotonin levels which improve directly and indirectly brain functions. Serotonin also helps to learn better and improve memory, especially along with eating right food (Tip #5: Eat the Right Foods.).

2. Dancing reduces stress.

3. Dancing makes one feel better, develop better appetite (energy) and sleep better

4. Dancing requires a quick decision making to lead or follow the partner

based on one partner’s moves, simultaneously keeping up with music, balancing, looking good and avoiding colliding with other dancers. This is learning process creating new connections and paths in the brain, improving memory and better future decision making.

"with more possibilities in solving problems".

All these factors increase dancers intelligence.Lessened stress, feeling better, with good sleeping habit, more energy, developing better decision making, dancer functions better and thinks more rationale, thereby make right and/or better decision and avoiding rash decision," which is not smart at all."

==

This is a very positive trend," said Deborah St. Vincent of the school's literacy team. "That P.E., before academics, makes a big difference in the reading score."

The kids who worked out right before class made up an average of one year in reading levels, and they scored 20 percent higher in math tests.

It seems that working out may literally grow brain cells. "They've actually grown brain cells in rats that are having more active exercises," said P.E. teacher Neil Duncan. "As opposed to rats that are not and are living a sedentary life."

Other scientists who study the link between brain and body have reported the same effect.

At the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign, elementary school students like Brian had their brain signals tested. First, researchers determined his physical fitness. Then, a high-tech brain mapping cap was linked to a nearby room where researchers recorded how quickly he picked out the occasional cat in a series of dog images, and how much brain power he needed for the task.

Dr. Charles Hillman said it is clear that more physically fit children "respond more quickly or more accurately when making decisions in such cognitive tests, so their brains are healthier brains." (9)

 

 

INJURIES (28)

Most injuries occur in crowded floor where one dancer step on other specially with pointed stiletto heel, else, injuries due to ballroom dancing are very rare.

Serious injuries during or due to ballroom dancing are rare. Older people can succumb to death as happened during jogging.

“Common injuries

"Watch your neck when you're out on the floor: whipping your head around may look feisty but it's also easy to injure the muscles and tendons in your neck. A pre-dance stretch for the whole body is a must."

High heels:

High heels may look elegant, but the health benefits of dancing can be achieved while practicing in comfortable shoes

Long use of high heels can cause back pain, knee arthritis, sprained ankles, Pump bump (bony enlargement on the back of the heel), hammer toes (curling deformity), bunions (bony bumps of great toes), in growing toe nails with possible fungal infection, shortening of tendo Achilles* , joint pain in the ball of the foot (metatarsalgia). neuromas (benign nerve tumor), stress fractures (tiny cracks ), corn and calluses.

Neuroma can causes sharp, burning pain in the ball of foot with or with out burning or numbness in toes.

Tendo Achilles: Thick fibrous cord that join the calf muscle and heel bones. Long use of high heels over time, Achilles tendons contract so much that wearing flat shoes do not feel comfortable

High heels are define as pumps with heels of more than two inches.

Very narrow stiletto heels or wide heels does not make much difference as far as complications are concerned.

These problems develop over time.
Low or no heeled shoes are safest against knee arthritis and other complications occurrence. Heel height should be limited to an inch and a half and the high heels are be worn for special occasions.

Author has seen death of a person in late forties from heart attack at the dance floor, one with mild heart attack and recovered, one very bad fall on back and multiple feet and leg injuries caused by dancers to other dancers during dancing. Neck muscle injuries (tear) during practice and left arm injuries (tear) during competition observed at "Dancing with the stars".

This is a gentleman's place. Never seen any kind of bar fight in any dance studio or dance hall in a good location.

BREAKING UP:

Very often one partner like dancing and the other partner does not. if they are married couple, this could be big problem. frequently, the partner like dancing, just stop dancing. Many occasions marriage simply breaks down and couple go their own way. Often the couple just adjust to certain extent.

The writer has seen three break up of marriages during 20, years period.

WEEKLY DANCING RECOMMENDATION & TYPE

“Make sure that you have eaten properly before you dance. (I like to give my food at least two hours to digest before I go high-energy dancing.)” (17)

“The 2005 USDA guidelines make it clear that average adults should get at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity EVERY DAY. Overweight individuals need at least 50 minutes per day. (17).

“Dance is a "moderate activity," say the USDA's physical activity guidelines. Adults should get at least 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity daily, according to the guidelines.”(7)

Some doctors recommend thirty minutes of dance, three times per week. (13)

This is desirable to dance varieties of dances rather than just one dance and same or similar steps all through the evening and night. This may provide the usual physical side of the benefit of dancing with limited brain development benefit.

It is better to learn different steps, do different dances and different things (in or outside dancing); These verities of performances stimulates and challenge the brain different ways, creating multiple paths and connections in the brain. More the paths and connections in the brain created, the better in every aspects such as memories, intelligence and avoidance of brain failure such as dementias. Beside

different dances, style and steps will focus on different areas of body, muscles and joints, strengthening them and making them flexible and more, most dancing will help to give you upper body strength

"The Romance of Dance
Dancing and romancing is once again being viewed in a more positive light. For a while, it seemed as though a quest for independence was driving couples apart on the dance floor, especially among younger crowds. The 1970’s saw a renewed interest in partner dancing when Saturday Night Fever exploded and a wave of disco clubs sprang up across the country. Since then, there seems to be a growing fervor among younger people for couples' dancing. The hype for country line and partner dancing that hit in the 1980’s followed by an increased interest in the Latin rhythm dances is proving that people enjoy getting to know one another in romantic and safe social contexts. Ballroom dancing provides just such an atmosphere.
Learning how to ballroom dance may prove not only to be an excellent form of entertainment and exercise, but you may even meet your mate. Countless people have lived to tell just such wonderful stories. Ballroom dancing provides an ideal social climate. Couples and singles can enjoy listening to great music at a decibel level that promotes communication. Have you ever been to a concert where the music was so loud that you could barely think, let alone talk to the person standing next to you? Well, you will find no such thing on a ballroom dance floor. Ballroom dance can safely be called a "social dance." (12)

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

The total body movement of dance enhances the functions of our circulatory, respiratory, skeletal, muscular and immune systems. Dance therapy can help us stay physically fit and enjoy the pleasure of creating rhythmic body motions. When combine with pleasant smiles, holding hands, and general merriment, joyful dancing has many measurable health benefits(17)

 

http://www.joyfulaging.com/JoyfulDancing.htm

Joyful Dancing - by Larry Hartweg

Ballroom Dancing

Conditions the body

Helps keep the heart in shape

Builds and increases stamina

Develops the circulatory system

Strengthens and tones legs and body

Increases flexibility and balance

Helps with weight loss

Relieves stress

In fact, Mayo Clinic researchers reported that social dancing helps to:

Reduce stress

Increase energy

Improve strength

Increase muscle tone and coordination

Dancing could be any where from mild to vigorous enjoyable workout in conjunction with various type of mood swinging and enjoyable music.

The silent contributory benefits attributed to dancing that it improves attitude, as a stress and tension reducer, improves attitude and confidence in both social and business situations (13 ) and control, agility, speed and balance sharpener, contributes to good posture, body alignment , gentle stretching, flexibility and stamina (13 ).

Researchers are learning that regular physical activity in general can help keep body, brain healthy as one ages. Exercise increases the level of brain chemicals that encourage nerve cells to grow. It requires dancers to remember dance steps and sequences . This boosts and improves brain’s memory recognition.

Dancing of any form helps to any age group with any physical abilities to stay and/or get in shaped.

 

 

dancing can give you a great mind-body workout (1) better brain-body workout

more energy and perhaps even live longer

 

Dancing can be magical and transforming. It can breathe new life into a tired soul; make a spirit soar; unleash locked-away creativity; unite generations and cultures; inspire new romances or rekindle old ones; trigger long-forgotten memories; and turn sadness into joy, if only during the dance.

For health purpose, specially mental health, ballroom dancing is one part of the equations.

Continued mental benefits seems could be derived from engaging the brain constantly. Feed it by performing new things and repeating old activities. These activities keep the brain forming new functioning pathways, connections and net networks (neurogenesis). These

functioning networks keep the person alert, active and prevents dementia and other brain diseases. So, one should involved learning new dances , new dance steps, making them more perfect. Better still do cross word puzzles, yoga (lots of stretching and compressions), gardening and more.

Susan Crandell is the author of Thinking About Tomorrow: Reinventing Yourself at Midlife, to be published by Warner Books in January 2007.

http://www.aarpmagazine.org/health/living_longer_exercise.html

“In recent studies, experts say that dancing has many valuable health benefits. Rhythmic movement strengthens bones, builds essential core muscle mass, and boosts mental health. It can significantly lower your risk of many types of dementia, and in some cases reverse previous mental atrophy.(17)

REFERENCES:

1. Getting Motivated Let's Dance to Health

http://www.aarp.org/health/fitness/get_motivated/lets_dance_to_health.html

2. Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Med. 2005;35(4):339-61. Review.

3. Build Muscle by Manipulating Hormones

Nutrition and Workout Strategies

By Paul Rogers, About.com

Updated: June 14, 2007

http://weighttraining.about.com/od/succeedingwithweights/a/hormones_3.htm

4. http://dance.about.com/od/danceandyourhealth/tp/Health-Benefits.htm

Top 4 Health Benefits of Dance

From Treva Bedinghaus,
5.
Neurophysiology and neurobiology of the musical experience.

Boso M, Politi P, Barale F, Enzo E.

Department of Applied and Psychobehavioural Health Sciences, Section of Psychiatry, University of Pavia, Italy. m_boso@yahoo.it

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367577?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

6. Effects of Tango on Functional Mobility in Parkinson's Disease: A Preliminary Study. Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy. 31(4):173-179, December 2007.
Hackney, Madeleine E. BFA; Kantorovich, Svetlana BS; Levin, Rebecca DPT; Earhart, Gammon M. PT, PhD

7. Dancing Your Way to Better Health

Ballroom Dancing May Help Mind, Body, and Spirit

By Miranda Hitti
WebMD Feature

Reviewed by Michael W. Smith, MD

http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/features/dancing-your-way-to-better-health

8.Become Smarter - How to Become Smarter. Why Dancing Makes You Smarter

http://www.becomingsmarter.com/become-smarter-by-dancing

Posted by Jeremy Wong

9. A Better Brain: Does Exercise Help Your Mental Power?

http://www.nbc5.com/news/13299121/detail.html

10. Exercise: 7 benefits of regular physical activity.

mayoclinic.com

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/exercise/HQ01676

11. DANCE AS THERAPY. Specific Benefits of Different Dances

Specific Benefits of Different Dances

http://bugdugle.com/Dance/256/Dancing+Can+Keep+You+Healthy%3F.html

12.Greater Daytona Chapter #6026
Experience the best Ballroom Dancing has to offer
This website is dedicated to lovers of Ballroom Dancing

http://greaterdaytonachapter.org/html/health_benefits.html

13. Exercise and Physical Benefits of Dancing

http://www.dancestudios.com/Exercise.html

14. The Health Benefits of Dancing -- Including Specific Benefits of Different Dances
by
www.SixWise.com

http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/05/11/02/the_health_benefits_of_dancing_--_including_specific_benefits_of_different_dances.htm

15. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly.
Verghese J, Lipton RB, Katz MJ, Hall CB, Derby CA, Kuslansky G, Ambrose AF, Sliwinski M, Buschke H. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2508-16.


16.
The Ghostly Art Of Dance by Dr. Pam Heath

http://www.parahub.org/articles/article.html?id=ELfUP9

17. Joyful Dancing - by Larry Hartweg

http://www.joyfulaging.com/JoyfulDancing.htm

18.Dancing Can Keep You Healthy?
http://bugdugle.com/Dance/256/Dancing+Can+Keep+You+Healthy%3F.html

19.Effects of music-based therapy on distress following knee arthroplasty.

Giaquinto S, Cacciato A, Minasi S, Sostero E, Amanda S. Br J Nurs. 2006 May 25-Jun 7;15(10):576-9.Links

Istituto Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16835556?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

20. Pubmed: Search on music, depression, dementia: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez

 

 

21. Skill learning in patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease: a prospective pilot-study of waltz-lessons.

Rösler A, Seifritz E, Kräuchi K, Spoerl D, Brokuslaus I, Proserpi SM, Gendre A, Savaskan E, Hofmann M. ; : Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2002 Dec;17(12):1155-6

Department of Neurology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany. alexander.roesler@kgu.de

 

 

22.Cognitive and mobility profile of older social dancers.

1: J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006 Aug;54(8):1241-4.

Verghese J. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16913992?ordinalpos=11&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. jverghese@aecom.yu.edu

PMID: 16913992 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

PMCID: PMC1550765

Comment in:

Neurology. 2006 Mar 28;66(6):794-5.

Leisure activities and the risk of amnestic mild cognitive impairment in the elderly.

Verghese J, LeValley A, Derby C, Kuslansky G, Katz M, Hall C, Buschke H, Lipton RB. 1: Neurology. 2006 Mar 28;66(6):821-7. Epub 2006 Feb 8

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16467493?ordinalpos=19&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum

Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA. jverghes@aecom.yu.edu

23. EXERCISE AND MOOD

http://www.clairedorotik.com/NLWC-EXERCISE_AND_MOOD.htm

 

 

24. Enkephalins:http://www.anaspec.com/products/productcategory.asp?id=165

25. Dynorphins: http://www.anaspec.com/products/productcategory.asp?id=161

26. Kosfeld M et al. 2005. Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435:673-676. PDF PMID 15931222

27. Zak, P.J. Stanton, A.A., Ahmadi, A. 2007. Oxytocin increases generosity in humans. PLoS ONE 2(11): e1128. [1]

28Angela A. Stanton 2007. Neural Substrates of Decision-Making in Economic Games. Scientific Journals International 1(1):1-64. [2]

28. What moves you? Ballroom dancing by Maryke Steffens

http://www.abc.net.au/health/healthyliving/fitness/exerciseguide/stories/2007/06/05/1952479.htm

29. “Happiness Is An Attitude, NOT A Situation”

http://www.joyfulaging.com/HappinessIsAnAttitude.htm

30. Serotonin & Depression. Kathryn Ho

http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/Ho.html

31. Flat Facts About High Heels. By Pat Curry, HealthAtoZ contributing writer

http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/dc/caz/bone/foot/alert10022001.jsp

32. Foot problems in women: High heels and your health

From MayoClinic.com
Special to CNN.com

http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/library/WO/00114.html

33. Living Longer: Exercise

By Susan Crandell, September & October 2006

http://www.aarpmagazine.org/health/living_longer_exercise.html

34. 4 healthy habits can add 14 years to your life

Study: Common-sense habits — like eating fruits, veggies — really do help http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22546476/

35. . Pamela Peeke, M.D., a University of Maryland researcher and author of Body for Life for Women (Rodale, 2005). Sited in reference 33.

36.

Specific Benefits of Different Dances

Specific Benefits of Different Dances

http://bugdugle.com/Dance/256/Dancing+Can+Keep+You+Healthy%3F.html

To dance is to breath

Dancing Can Keep You Healthy?

The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) recognizes the benefits of dance in lowering coronary heart disease risk, decreasing blood pressure, and managing weight. Another plus of dancing is that the weight bearing movements of your steps can strengthen the bones of your legs and hips, important for maintaining bone health as you age. As a result, dancing may be used as part of a rehabilitation program, of course with appropriate supervision.

AARP Resources

Pilates: A Core Conditioning Program
Made popular by professional dancers and celebrities, Pilates strengthens your body's core and creates the long, lean muscles of a dancer.

Memory Loss and Aging
AARP teamed up with the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives to bring you information on the most recent advances in brain research.

Yoga Yields Mind and Body Fitness
Like dance, yoga gives you both a body and mind workout.

Additional Resources

Dance Videos
From ballet to wedding and party dance, you'll find a wide assortment of dance videos in between to get you moving at home. You'll also find an armchair dance aerobics video if you have limited mobility.

Choosing a Dance Instructor
The National Dance Council of America has brochures on how to choose a ballroom or performing arts dance instructor.

Invitation to Dance: Line Dancing
This DVD is a good place to start line dancing.

Books

Find these books online at Barnes & Noble.com.

Returning to Health: With Dance, Movement and Imagery,
Anna Halprin, LifeRhythm, October 2002

Jump into Jazz: The Basics and Beyond for Jazz Dance Students,
Minda Goodman Kraines, Esther Pryor, The McGraw-Hill Companies, July 2004

Belly Dancing Basics,
Laura A. Cooper, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., April 2004

Top of Page

------------

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1: N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2508-16.

Related Articles, Links


Comment in:

N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2489-90.

N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25;349(13):1290-2; author reply 1290-2.

N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25;349(13):1290-2; author reply 1290-2.


Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly.

Verghese J, Lipton RB, Katz MJ, Hall CB, Derby CA, Kuslansky G, Ambrose AF, Sliwinski M, Buschke H.

Einstein Aging Study, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. jverghes@aecom.yu.edu


BACKGROUND: Participation in leisure activities has been associated with a lower risk of dementia. It is unclear whether increased participation in leisure activities lowers the risk of dementia or participation in leisure activities declines during the preclinical phase of dementia. METHODS: We examined the relation between leisure activities and the risk of dementia in a prospective cohort of 469 subjects older than 75 years of age who resided in the community and did not have dementia at base line. We examined the frequency of participation in leisure activities at enrollment and derived cognitive-activity and physical-activity scales in which the units of measure were activity-days per week. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to evaluate the risk of dementia according to the base-line level of participation in leisure activities, with adjustment for age, sex, educational level, presence or absence of chronic medical illnesses, and base-line cognitive status. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up period of 5.1 years, dementia developed in 124 subjects (Alzheimer's disease in 61 subjects, vascular dementia in 30, mixed dementia in 25, and other types of dementia in 8). Among leisure activities, reading, playing board games, playing musical instruments, and dancing were associated with a reduced risk of dementia. A one-point increment in the cognitive-activity score was significantly associated with a reduced risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 0.93 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.90 to 0.97]), but a one-point increment in the physical-activity score was not (hazard ratio, 1.00). The association with the cognitive-activity score persisted after the exclusion of the subjects with possible preclinical dementia at base line. Results were similar for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. In linear mixed models, increased participation in cognitive activities at base line was associated with reduced rates of decline in memory. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in leisure activities is associated with a reduced risk of dementia, even after adjustment for base-line cognitive status and after the exclusion of subjects with possible preclinical dementia. Controlled trials are needed to assess the protective effect of cognitive leisure activities on the risk of dementia. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

Publication Types:

Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.


PMID: 12815136 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

http://dance.about.com/od/danceandyourhealth/tp/Health-Benefits.htm

 

 

EFFECT OF MUSIC

REFERENCES:

1.

New Study Confirms It: Music is a Must for Your Good Health ... and Your Brain

The 9 Types of Romanic Love: Which Type Do You Believe In?

Sources

Columbia University: Dancing for Health

New England Journal of Medicine, June 19, 2003; 348(25):2508-16

The Telegraph Online October 9, 2005

WebMD: Dancing Your Way to Better Health

USA Dance

------------------

http://www.michigan.gov/gov/0,1607,7-168-23442_25488_43769_43778-173934--RSS,00.html

 

 

 

1:
Verghese J, Lipton RB, Katz MJ, Hall CB, Derby CA, Kuslansky G, Ambrose AF, Sliwinski M, Buschke H. Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2508-16.
Einstein Aging Study, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. jverghes@aecom.yu.edu
Related Articles, Links
Comment in:

N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2489-90.

N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25;349(13):1290-2; author reply 1290-2.

N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25;349(13):1290-2; author reply 1290-2.

 

 

 

 

2. Mayo Clinic researchers reported that social dancing helps to

 

 

8. AARP Resources

Pilates: A Core Conditioning Program
Made popular by professional dancers and celebrities, Pilates strengthens your body's core and creates the long, lean muscles of a dancer.

Memory Loss and Aging
AARP teamed up with the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives to bring you information on the most recent advances in brain research.

Yoga Yields Mind and Body Fitness
Like dance, yoga gives you both a body and mind workout.

Additional Resources

Dance Videos
From ballet to wedding and party dance, you'll find a wide assortment of dance videos in between to get you moving at home. You'll also find an armchair dance aerobics video if you have limited mobility.

Choosing a Dance Instructor
The National Dance Council of America has brochures on how to choose a ballroom or performing arts dance instructor.

Invitation to Dance: Line Dancing
This DVD is a good place to start line dancing.

Books

Find these books online at Barnes & Noble.com.

Returning to Health: With Dance, Movement and Imagery,
Anna Halprin, LifeRhythm, October 2002

Jump into Jazz: The Basics and Beyond for Jazz Dance Students,
Minda Goodman Kraines, Esther Pryor, The McGraw-Hill Companies, July 2004

Belly Dancing Basics,
Laura A. Cooper, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., April 2004

Top of Page

\\\\\\

http://bugdugle.com/Dance/256/Dancing+Can+Keep+You+Healthy%3F.html

To dance is to breath

Dancing Can Keep You Healthy?

7:27 AM, Tuesday 26 June 2007 .. Posted in Dance Education .. Link

========

http://www.parahub.org/articles/article.html?id=ELfUP9

==

http://www.joyfulaging.com/JoyfulDancing.htm

Joyful Dancing - by Larry Hartweg

--

http://www.sixwise.com/newsletters/05/11/02/the_health_benefits_of_dancing_--_including_specific_benefits_of_different_dances.htm

The Health Benefits of Dancing -- Including Specific Benefits of Different Dances
by
www.SixWise.com

==========

Recommended Reading

New Study Confirms It: Music is a Must for Your Good Health ... and Your Brain

The 9 Types of Romanic Love: Which Type Do You Believe In?

Sources

Columbia University: Dancing for Health

New England Journal of Medicine, June 19, 2003; 348(25):2508-16

The Telegraph Online October 9, 2005

WebMD: Dancing Your Way to Better Health

USA Dance

------------------

http://www.michigan.gov/gov/0,1607,7-168-23442_25488_43769_43778-173934--RSS,00.html

-----------

1: N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2508-16.

Related Articles, Links
Comment in:

N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 19;348(25):2489-90.

N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25;349(13):1290-2; author reply 1290-2.

N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25;349(13):1290-2; author reply 1290-2.


 

 

 

--------

===Related Articles

Senior Exercise: Strength Exercises Build Muscle, Incre...Bodybuilding Hormones - Manipulate Hormones for Bodybui...Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength - Determine Strength and E...Exercises - 4 Best Exercises for Older AdultsWeight Training Guide - Best Weight Training Guide - We...

Sponsored Links

Take Ballroom LessonsAt Historic Savage Mill. Also, Children's Dance & Fitness Classeswww.CoreDanceMove.com

Egyptian Sun Belly DancePerformances and Dance Instruction Enjoy the Art of Belly Dance!www.egyptiansun.net

Local Dance StudiosFind a Dance Studio Near You Read Reviews and Recommendationswww.Wellsphere.com

Ballroom DancingCome out & Dance or Learn to Dance Hold Your Event @ Copa!www.copacabanna.com

Dance ShoesHunting For dance shoes? Visit our dance shoes guide.FantasticFindings.com

--------

http://www.aarp.org/health/fitness/get_motivated/lets_dance_to_health.html

Getting Motivated

Print Article Email Article

Let's Dance to Health

=========

13

AARP Resources

Pilates: A Core Conditioning Program
Made popular by professional dancers and celebrities, Pilates strengthens your body's core and creates the long, lean muscles of a dancer.

Memory Loss and Aging
AARP teamed up with the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives to bring you information on the most recent advances in brain research.

Yoga Yields Mind and Body Fitness
Like dance, yoga gives you both a body and mind workout.

Additional Resources

Dance Videos
From ballet to wedding and party dance, you'll find a wide assortment of dance videos in between to get you moving at home. You'll also find an armchair dance aerobics video if you have limited mobility.

Choosing a Dance Instructor
The National Dance Council of America has brochures on how to choose a ballroom or performing arts dance instructor.

Invitation to Dance: Line Dancing
This DVD is a good place to start line dancing.

Books

Find these books online at Barnes & Noble.com.

Returning to Health: With Dance, Movement and Imagery,
Anna Halprin, LifeRhythm, October 2002

Jump into Jazz: The Basics and Beyond for Jazz Dance Students,
Minda Goodman Kraines, Esther Pryor, The McGraw-Hill Companies, July 2004

Belly Dancing Basics,
Laura A. Cooper, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., April 2004

Top of Page

-----------

http://www.dancestudios.com/Exercise.html

Exercise and Physical Benefits of Dancing Exercise and Physical Fitness

----------15

Greater Daytona Chapter #6026
Experience the best Ballroom Dancing has to offer
This website is dedicated to lovers of Ballroom Dancing

 

http://greaterdaytonachapter.org/html/health_benefits.html

Ballroom for Better Health - The Physical Benefits

----------

 

--------

http://socialdance.stanford.edu/syllabi/intelligent.htm

17

-----------

18

http://www.becomingsmarter.com/become-smarter-by-dancing

27 Jun

Posted by Jeremy as Long Term - For Maximum Benefit

“Nobody cares if you can’t dance well. Just get up and dance.” -Dave Barry =============================

http://bugdugle.com/Dance/256/Dancing+Can+Keep+You+Healthy%3F.html

REFERENCES:

1.

New Study Confirms It: Music is a Must for Your Good Health ... and Your Brain

The 9 Types of Romanic Love: Which Type Do You Believe In?

Sources

Columbia University: Dancing for Health

New England Journal of Medicine, June 19, 2003; 348(25):2508-16

The Telegraph Online October 9, 2005

WebMD: Dancing Your Way to Better Health

USA Dance

------------------

http://www.michigan.gov/gov/0,1607,7-168-23442_25488_43769_43778-173934--RSS,00.html

 

 

 

Recommended Reading

New Study Confirms It: Music is a Must for Your Good Health ... and Your Brain

The 9 Types of Romanic Love: Which Type Do You Believe In?

Sources

Columbia University: Dancing for Health

New England Journal of Medicine, June 19, 2003; 348(25):2508-16

The Telegraph Online October 9, 2005

WebMD: Dancing Your Way to Better Health

USA Dance

------------------

http://www.michigan.gov/gov/0,1607,7-168-23442_25488_43769_43778-173934--RSS,00.html

==============

Dance MovesFind Dance Moves. Fast in the Ansearch Directory.www.AnSearch.com

Places to DanceLocate dance places, dance teachers and dance events world-wide!www.DanceSpots.com

Places to Dance in DCFeel the Beat and Move Your Feet Music, Events, Dance and Hangoutswww.prosinthecity.com

 

11

Related Articles

Senior Exercise: Strength Exercises Build Muscle, Incre...Bodybuilding Hormones - Manipulate Hormones for Bodybui...Pelvic Floor Muscle Strength - Determine Strength and E...Exercises - 4 Best Exercises for Older AdultsWeight Training Guide - Best Weight Training Guide - We...

Sponsored Links

Take Ballroom LessonsAt Historic Savage Mill. Also, Children's Dance & Fitness Classeswww.CoreDanceMove.com

Egyptian Sun Belly DancePerformances and Dance Instruction Enjoy the Art of Belly Dance!www.egyptiansun.net

Local Dance StudiosFind a Dance Studio Near You Read Reviews and Recommendationswww.Wellsphere.com

Ballroom DancingCome out & Dance or Learn to Dance Hold Your Event @ Copa!www.copacabanna.com

Dance ShoesHunting For dance shoes? Visit our dance shoes guide.FantasticFindings.com

-------------

 

=========

"going for the burn" and more on having fun; (13)more than ever

Fun & fit

Treadmill or dancingTURN & TWIST

mind as well as your muscles.

Dance sport vs. arts. It is a blend of sports and arts.

=========

Obesity, high bp. Heat deas, stroke leptin lack( 60 minute march 16,20080

============================

http://www.dancestudios.com/Exercise.html

Exercise and Physical Benefits of Dancing Exercise and Physical Fitness

With the pressures of job and social obligations tugging us every which way, it's more and more difficult to find time for exercise. Maybe that's why Americans are struggling with their weight and health more than ever. It's no secret that moderate exercise and sensible eating habits are the key to remaining trim and fit. However, the thought of spending thirty minutes on a treadmill, or jogging around the block five times is out of the question for many of us. Dancing works like a stress and tension reducer. For people on a hectic schedule it can become a passion that helps you improve your attitude and increase your confidence in both social and business situations. That's what makes dance the ideal exercise! After all, dancing is a mild aerobic workout, minus the boring part! When you take dance lessons, you make exercise a fun and enjoyable social event, every night of the week. Your dance "work out" takes place with pleasant music and everyone's in a good mood. It's fun.

Consider these dance facts:

Dance contributes to increased personal confidence.

Olympic athletes often include dance in their training to sharpen their control, agility, speed and balance.

Dance is considered to be one of the top five physical activities, out of 60 studied.

Dance contributes to good posture and body alignment.

Dancing encourages gentle stretching.

Dance increases your flexibility and stamina.

As an aerobic exercise, dance benefits your cardiovascular system as you swing and sway from hips to shoulders.

Some doctors recommend thirty minutes of dance, three times per week.

Ever since the International Olympic Committee gave ballroom dancing provisional recognition, it has been getting a lot of attention as a true athletic activity. One look at the fitness level and physiques of professional ballroom competitors, trainers and dance teachers is proof of its virtues.

"Ballroom dance is a rigorous activity that uses the larger muscle groups, and is usually done over the course of an hour, or an entire evening," said George B. Theiss, President of Arthur Murray International. "It's most frequently compared to ice dancing, and no one would question the athletic ability of an ice skater. Since we work without gliding across ice, it's possible that a competitive ballroom dancer might even be in better shape than a figure skater.

Many people turn to ballroom dance when more traditional exercise programs fall by the wayside, either because of injuries or sheer boredom. Ballroom dance is a low impact activity. This makes it accessible to people of at any age or fitness level. With less emphasis on "going for the burn" and more on having fun; the weight loss, improved circulation and aerobic conditioning emerges as a wonderful side effect.

click to enlarge and print certificate

=========

Walk Away the Blues

Never Too Late WebMD Feature

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=50856

History

The founding of neurochemistry as a discipline traces it origins to a series of "International Neurochemical Symposia", of which the first symposium volume published in 1954 was titled Biochemistry of the Developing Nervous System.[1] These meetings led to the formation of the International Society for Neurochemistry and the American Society for Neurochemistry. These early gatherings discussed the tentative nature of possible synaptic transmitter substances such as acetylcholine, histamine, substance P, and serotonin. By 1972, ideas were more concrete. Neurochemicals such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin were classified as "putative neurotransmitters in certain neuronal tracts in the brain."

--------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurochemistry#Examples_of_neurochemicals

Examples of neurochemicals

The neuropeptide oxytocin. Oxytocin is involved in the control of maternal behavior. It is synthesized inside magnocellular neurosecretory cells as a precursor protein that is processed by proteolysis to its shorter active peptide form. Specific parts of the brain such as the supraoptic nucleus produce oxytocin which acts on cells in locations such as the ventral pallidum to produce the behavioral effects of oxytocin. A large amount of oxytocin is made in the hypothalamus, transported to the posterior lobe of the pituitary and released into the blood stream by which it reaches target tissues such as the mammary glands (milk letdown). In the diagram inset, oxytocin is shown bound to a carrier protein, neurophysin.

Other examples of neurochemicals

Glutamate is the most common neurotransmitter. Most neurons secrete with glutamate or GABA. Glutamate is excitatory, meaning that the release of glutamate by one cell usually causes adjacent cells to fire an action potential. (Note: Glutamate is chemically identical to the MSG commonly used to flavor food.)

GABA is an example of an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

Dopamine is another example of a neurotransmitter. It plays a key role in the functioning of the limbic system, which is involved in emotional function and control.

Serotonin plays a regulatory role in mood, sleep, and other areas.

Acetylcholine assists motor function.

Nitric oxide functions as a neurotransmitter, despite being a gas. It is not grouped with the other neurotransmitters because it is not released in the same way.

Endocannabinoids act in the endocannabinoid system to control neurotransmitter release in a host of neuronal tissues, including the hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, and cerebellum.

Eicosanoids act as neurotransmitters via the Arachidonic acid cascade.[2]

================

Serotonin & Depression

Kathryn Ho

http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/Ho.html

serotonin deficiencies, and patients suffering from major depression is indeed significant. It is noted that 80-90% of individuals suffering from depression can be successfully treated. The treatment for patients suffering from depression may need to come in the form of antidepressant drugs and 5-HTP or Tryptophan which can indeed boost your levels of serotonin. Studies do show that "5-HTP treatment is statistically superior to placebos in treating a number of patients with endogenous depression.

----------

Exercise Fuels the Brain's Stress Buffers

http://www.apahelpcenter.org/articles/article.php?id=25

Exercise may improve mental health by helping the brain cope better with stress, according to research into the effect of exercise on neurochemicals involved in the body's stress response.

Preliminary evidence suggests that physically active people have lower rates of anxiety and depression than sedentary people.

--------

Preliminary evidence suggests that physically active people have lower rates of anxiety and depression than sedentary people.http://fitness.suite101.com/article.cfm/stress_reduction_and_exercise

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Norepinephrine is particularly interesting to researchers because 50 percent of the brain's supply is produced in the locus coeruleus, a brain area that connects most of the brain regions involved in emotional and stress responses. The chemical is thought to play a major role in modulating the action of other, more prevalent neurotransmitters that play a direct role in the stress response.

 

 

Biologically, exercise seems to give the body a chance to practice dealing with stress. It forces the body's physiological systems - all of which are involved in the stress response - to communicate much more closely than usual: The cardiovascular system communicates with the renal system, which communicates with the muscular system. And all of these are controlled by the central and sympathetic nervous systems, which also must communicate with each other. This workout of the body's communication system may be the true value of exercise; the more sedentary we get, the less efficient our bodies in responding to stress.

Thanks to Rod K. Dishman, PhD, of the University of Georgia, and Mark Sothmann, PhD, of Indiana University's School of Medicine and School of Allied Health Sciences.

Documents from apahelpcenter.org may be reprinted in their entirety with credit given to the American Psychological Association. Any exceptions to this, including requests to excerpt or paraphrase documents from apahelpcenter.org, must be presented in writing to helping@apa.org and will be considered on a case-by-case basis. Permission for exceptions will be given on a one-time-only basis and must be sought for each additional use of the document.

==========

0exerciseguide/stories/2007/06/05/1952479.htm

=============

 

Cells in the adrenal medulla synthesize and secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine. The ratio of these two catecholamines differs considerably among species: in humans, cats and chickens, roughly 80, 60 and 30% of the catecholamine output is epinephrine. Following release into blood, these hormones bind adrenergic receptors on target cells, where they induce essentially the same effects as direct sympathetic nervous stimulation.

 

Synthesis and Secretion of Catecholamines

Synthesis of catecholamines begins with the amino acid tyrosine, which is taken up by chromaffin cells in the medulla and converted to norepinephrine and epinephrine through the following steps:

 

Norepinephine and epinephrine are stored in electron-dense granules which also contain ATP and several neuropeptides. Secretion of these hormones is stimulated by acetylcholine release from preganglionic sympathetic fibers innervating the medulla. Many types of "stresses" stimulate such secretion, including exercise, hypoglycemia and trauma. Following secretion into blood, the catecholamines bind loosely to and are carried in the circulation by albumin and perhaps other serum proteins.

Adrenergic Receptors and Mechanism of Action

The physiologic effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine are initiated by their binding to adrenergic receptors on the surface of target cells. These receptors are prototypical examples of seven-pass transmembrane proteins that are coupled to G proteins which stimulate or inhibit intracellular signalling pathways.

Complex physiologic responses result from adrenal medullary stimulation because there are multiple receptor types which are differentially expressed in different tissues and cells. The alpha and beta adrenergic receptors and their subtypes were originally defined by differential binding of various agonists and antagnonists and, more recently, by analysis of molecular clones.

-----------

Living Longer: Exercise

By Susan Crandell, September & October 2006

http://www.aarpmagazine.org/health/living_longer_exercise.html

Regular physical activity has been shown to reduce your risk of heart attack, stroke, Alzheimer’s, and some cancers. Now we’re finding it also may add years to your life. That’s powerful medicine indeed

 

There are no guarantees in life and even fewer in death. But if you wish to prolong the former and delay the latter, scientists can now pretty much promise that regular exercise will help. "So many of what we thought were symptoms of aging are actually symptoms of disuse," says Pamela Peeke, M.D., a University of Maryland researcher and author of Body for Life for Women (Rodale, 2005). "This is a monster statement." It means that your health is not just a throw of the genetic dice but a factor that is largely under your control. "Our bodies are built for obsolescence after 50," Peeke says. "Up to 50 you can get away with not exercising; after that, you start paying the price."

The most dramatic declines due to aging are in muscle strength. "Unless you do resistance exercise—strength training with weights or elastic bands—you lose six pounds of muscle a decade," says Wayne Westcott, Ph.D., the highly respected fitness research director at the South Shore YMCA in Quincy, Massachusetts. That change in body composition not only saps our strength; it also lowers our metabolism and exposes us to greater risk of age-related disease. In fact, the loss of muscle (and accompanying increase in body fat) puts extra strain on the heart, alters sugar metabolism (increasing the risk for diabetes), and can tip the balance of healthy lipids in the blood, leading to heart attack and stroke.

Strength-Training Exercises

Message Board: If Scientists Were Able to Develop a Longevity Pill, Would You Take It?

7 Reasons to Get Off the Couch Already! (July & August 2006)

Web Exclusive: Fitness Diary

Step Up to Better Health: AARP's Free Online Walking Program (AARP.org)

Building muscle is much easier than you might think. Strength training just 20 minutes a day, two or three times a week, for 10 to 12 weeks can rebuild three pounds of muscle and increase your metabolism by 7 percent. Do you really need a boost in metabolism? Yes, if you want to feel more energetic, more alert, more vital and alive. Plus, the added muscle has a halo effect on many systems of the body, reducing blood pressure, improving your ability to use glucose from the blood by 25 percent, increasing bone mass by 1 to 3 percent, and improving gastrointestinal efficiency by 55 percent. "It's like going from a four-cylinder engine to a six," Westcott says.

If that's not enough to get your attention, consider this: a regular exercise program (30 minutes of physical activity at least three days a week) can reduce your risk of dying in the next eight years by 40 percent, improve brain function, cut your risk of Alzheimer's disease by up to 60 percent, and blunt the symptoms of depression. This is powerful medicine, given that 80 percent of the population over 65 suffers from at least one chronic condition, and half have two or more, according to a report from the Census Bureau and the National Institute on Aging.

What is it about physical activity that makes it such a panacea? As scientists learn more about how the aging process works, they're finding that exercise—both aerobic exercise and strength training—has a tremendous impact on every cell in the body, reducing inflammation, increasing blood flow, and even reversing the natural declines in oxygen efficiency and muscle mass that come with aging.

The most dramatic declines due to aging are in muscle strength.

Westcott points to a study his organization conducted at a nursing home in Orange City, Florida. Nineteen men and women with an average age of 89, most of whom used wheelchairs, did just ten minutes of strength training a week. "After 14 weeks almost everybody was out of their wheelchairs," Westcott says. "One woman moved back into independent living." The results were published in Mature Fitness.

Another inspiring study, published last spring in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, reported that people in their 60s and 70s who walked or jogged, biked, and stretched for 90 minutes three times a week for six months increased their exercise efficiency—their ability to exercise harder without expending more energy—by a whopping 30 percent. But here's the shocker: a comparison group of people in their 20s and 30s showed an efficiency increase of just 2 percent. The results caught even study author Wayne C. Levy, M.D., an associate professor of cardiology at the University of Washington in Seattle, by surprise. "I hadn't anticipated that the older people would improve more than the group in their 20s and 30s," he says. AARP: Health Care and Pharmacy Benefits for People 50 and Over
AARP member benefits include access to health and life insurance options, discounts on prescription drugs, and tips on staying active.
Joining online is fast, easy and only $12.50/year.

The explanation, Levy believes, may involve improvement in the function of the mitochondria—spherical or rod-shaped structures in our cells that take glucose, protein, and fat from the food we eat and turn them into energy. In fact, scientists believe that most of the dramatic benefits we get from exercise can be traced to this improvement in the mitochondria. "Mitochondrial function naturally declines with age," explains Kevin Short, Ph.D., who studies mitochondria and exercise at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. But exercise, he found, can reverse that decline.

When Short and his colleagues put 65 healthy nonexercisers ranging in age from 21 to 87 on a bicycle training program three days a week, they found that everyone's maximum aerobic capacity had increased by about 10 percent after four months. When they studied thigh-muscle samples, they found out why: the mitochondria were pumping out more adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the fuel muscles use to move.

Now, if mightier mitochondria aren't enough to get you on your exercise bike each morning, consider this: physical activity may also combat oxidative damage (see "Browning apples: oxidation at work" in 3 Key Aging Concepts). Abraham Aviv, M.D., director of the Center of Human Development and Aging at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, explains how it works: "During exercise there's a tremendous burst of oxidative agents that are injurious to tissue." But while you take in more oxygen while exercising, regular physical activity also slows your resting heart rate, making it more efficient. The net result? Exercise reduces the overall rate at which you create harmful free radicals.

Finally, to all these substantial benefits of exercise add one more: Professor Tim Spector, director of the TwinsUK registry at St. Thomas' Hospital in London, is conducting experiments to determine whether exercise slows down the rate at which our telomeres shrink. (Telomeres are DNA sequences, located on the ends of chromosomes, that shorten as we age—see "Telomeres: your body's biological clock" 3 Key Aging Concepts). Although the results have not yet been published, preliminary findings suggest that in exercising and sedentary twin pairs, the twin who exercises has much longer telomeres "even when you adjust for differences in weight and smoking," says Spector.

In short, the evidence is clear: daily physical activity can transform your life. And it's never too late to start. "I started strength-training my father when he was 82," recalls Westcott. "He's six feet tall, but he was emaciated by the stress of my mother's death and weighed only 124 pounds. In a year and a half, he added 24 pounds of muscle. At 97, he's stronger than people half his age."Susan Crandell is the author of Thinking About Tomorrow: Reinventing Yourself at Midlife, to be published by Warner Books in January 2007.

===========

4 healthy habits can add 14 years to your life

Study: Common-sense habits — like eating fruits, veggies — really do help

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22546476/

 

updated 8:45 p.m. ET, Mon., Jan. 7, 2008

LONDON - People who drink moderately, exercise, quit smoking and eat five servings of fruit and vegetables each day live on average 14 years longer than people who adopt none of these behaviors, researchers said on Tuesday.

Overwhelming evidence has shown that these things contribute to healthier and longer lives, but the new study actually quantified their combined impact, the British team said.

“These results may provide further support for the idea that even small differences in lifestyle may make a big difference to health in the population and encourage behavior change,” the researchers wrote in the journal PLoS Medicine.

========

Pbs

Mar25,08

Costofwar.com+

500 billion to 3 triliion

Cost of war

12 billion/month

------------------

]Reference: Letter to editor dated 21 march 2008 by Samir K Ghosh

Editor India Abroad:

In response to the letter by Mr. Samir K Ghosh, please

note that Mr. Ghosh mentioned in his letter

"....but the Muslims are over 30% of India's population."

In the last Indian census of 2001, Mulim population was

recorded as 13.4%.

If one considere that India is still undvided

(i.e. India + Pakistan + Bangladesh),

then Muslim population would be round about 30% now.

Muslim population is over 30 % in Assam and over 25%

in West bengal presently by last Indian census.

Thanks

Most sincerely,
Dilip Ray

Baltimore. MD

PS: If do not consider to publish this facts, please send this information to Mr. Ghosh.

Samir K Ghosh (703) 820-7072 2425 S Culpeper St,Arlington, VA 22206=================

Science: A new understanding of the aging process

Diet: Try this stay-young food plan

Balance: Easy ways to keep stress from sapping vitality

The Future: A look ahead at promising ideas for curing age-related diseases

==================

Competitions Ballroom dancing is divided into:

Latin (Cha Cha, Samba, Rumba, Paso Doble, Jive)

and

Standard/Modern (Waltz, Foxtrot, Viennese Waltz, Quickstep, Tango)

There are many other popular dances as well.

SMOOTH

Swing (East Coast, West Coast, & Lindy Hop) & Zive

Waltz (American , International & Vienese)

 

 

LATINS OR LATIN FLARE

Salsa/Mambo and variations Cumbia, Cuban salsa

Tango (American style, International style and Argentin)

Rumba

Bolero

Samba

Lambada

Bosa Nova

OTHER TYPES DANCINGS

Square dancing

Line dancing, which can be done to country, rock, pop, or salsa music

Folk dancing, which can reconnect you to your ethnic roots or introduce you to a whole new culture

Belly dancing

Flamenco

Jazz

Tap

Modern

Clogging (double-time stomping and tap steps)

Contra (square dance moves in lines with men and women switching places)

--

 

 

 


 


==================

1: Clin Sports Med. 2008 Apr;27(2):329-34. Links

Nerve disorders in dancers.

Kennedy JG, Baxter DE.

Foot and Ankle Department, Hospital for Special Surgery, 523 East 72nd Street, Suite 514, New York, NY 10021, USA. kennedyj@hss.edu


Enter content here

Ballroom-Dancing.us

... see the seductive world of ballroom dancing has gradually taken over your life, ... it's a great way to meet members of the opposite sex and other friends, and ...www.ballroom-dancing.us - Cached

http://www.ballroom-dancing.us/BDIndex.asp

----------------------

Improve Your Sex Life with Exercise

Improve Your Sex Life with Exercise from About.com's Exercise Guide ... If health and fitness aren't enough to get you to exercise, how about improving your sex life? ...exercise.about.com/cs/exercisehealth/a/sexandexercise.htm - Cached

Exercise Makes Sex Better – Sex and Exercise

Exercise will improve your sex life. The more you exercise, the less your chance for sexual problems and the greater your sexual pleasure and performance. People ...longevity.about.com/od/lifelongfitness/a/exercise_sex.htm - Cached

1: Pediatr Radiol. 1991;21(5):381-3.Links

Stress fracture of the fibula in the first decade of life. Report of eight cases.

Kozlowski K, Azouz M, Hoff D.

Department of Radiology, Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, Australia.

Stress fracture of fibula in athletes and ballet dancers is a well recognised entity. Fibular fractures in children in the first decade of life who are not active in sport or ballet dancing are not well known and often diagnosed as osteomyelitis or malignant bone tumour. This misdiagnosis may be followed by CT, nuclear scan or MR. All these investigations are not necessary and biopsy if performed might even be misleading. The plain X-rays show diagnostic radiographic findings and a misdiagnosis is highly unlikely especially when they are evaluated in the context of clinical findings.

====

 

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1: J Am Podiatry Assoc. 1980 May;70(5):252-3.Links

The discotheque dancer and podiatric medicine.

Gorman JB, Helfand BM, Mazer RS.

PMID: 7381134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

=

1: Med Sci Law. 1983 Apr;23(2):114-6.Links

Sudden death in an 11-year-old boy due to rupture of a colloid cyst of the third ventricle following 'disco-dancing'.

Torrey J.

PMID: 6865696 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

==

1: Health Soc Serv J. 1985 May 2;95(4946):549.Links

Entertainment. Therapeutic pas de deux.

Lyall J.

PMID: 10271409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

==

1

 

 

 

 

==========

1: J Adolesc Health Care. 1987 Mar;8(2):211-2.Links

Tumor of the back in a break dancer.

Satran L.

Break dancing is a form of recreation that may result in minor and major trauma among participants. A case is presented of an adolescent who developed an unusual swelling on his back after persistent vigorous involvement in break dancing. Resolution of the tumor occurred after several months of avoiding the activity. Other injuries caused by break dancing are reviewed, and preventive measures are discussed.

PMID: 3818409 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

=========

Music is integral part of dancing and each having synergistic effect on other. Their health benefits overlap in most disease conditions.

Dance and music therapy helps all people including cancer and many other diseases.

“What is dance therapy?

Dance therapy uses movement to improve mental and physical well-being. It is a recognized form of complementary therapy used in hospitals and comprehensive clinical cancer centers.”

“What is music therapy?

Music therapy uses music to promote healing and enhance quality of life. It is a complementary therapy that is used along with other cancer treatments to help patients cope mentally and physically with their diagnosis. Music therapy may involve listening to music, creating music, singing, and discussing music, in addition to guided imagery with music.”

 

How does dance/music therapy work?

Dancing needs to be instigated with music to create a beautiful rhythmical total body motions.

This provides beneficial effects on heart, lungs, muscles, bone and joints. Physical activity increases liberation of many neurotransmitter substances in the brain (endorphins, mention all), resulting in a well-being physical and mental states.

Dance/music are possibly the best form of brain-body work out.

Thus one stays physically fit and emotionally content.

One with any disease condition should consult a physician before starting an exercise program to rule out any harmful effect from dancing.

Music in combination with pain-relieving drugs, can decrease the patient's pain experience and reduce pain medication dose.

Both dance and music are helpful in relieving stress, apprehension, blood pressure, depression, sleeplessness, muscle tension, provide relaxation and improve positive body image, self-esteem.

Some form of music can slow a fast beating heart.

Self-expression and creative process during these processes can have tremendous psychological benefits..

Obviously dance and music therapies can not replace the medical care for cancer.

Art Therapy, Dance Therapy, Music Therapy, and Imagery

http://cancer.stanford.edu/information/alternativeTherapy/senses.html

BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF DANCING

CANCER:

“exercise, cancer, prevention”
1335 references

References: There are too many references in this link. So they were not individually mentioned. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez

Exercise is noted to be could be very beneficial in cancer prevention and cancer management.

BREAST CANCER:

“Physical activity is a protective factor for breast cancer. Exposure to estrogen is an important determinant of breast cancer risk and exercise reduces estrogen levels, with the level of evidence being stronger for post-menopausal women.” .
Coyle YM.: Physical activity as a negative modulator of estrogen-induced breast cancer.Cancer Causes Control. 2008 Jun 10
========
Physical activity has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk, potentially via hormonal pathways, and high urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OH E1) relative to 16 -hydroxyestrone (16 -OH E1) also has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk. Studies suggest that body composition and exercise can influence estrogen metabolism.
Thus, this 12-month moderate intensity exercise intervention did not significantly alter urinary excretion of 2-OH E1, 16 -OH E1, or their ratio in this population of women.

However, other benefits were noted.
Atkinson C, Lampe JW, Tworoger SS, Ulrich CM, Bowen D, Irwin ML, Schwartz RS, Rajan BK, Yasui Y, Potter JD, McTiernan A. Effects of a moderate intensity exercise intervention on estrogen metabolism in postmenopausal women Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 May;13(5):868-74.
Links

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Leisure-time physical activity was associated with a reduced risk for also premenopausal breast cancer, more so, in participants lifetimes leisure-time physical activity rather than for any one intensity or age period ( ).
“Physical activity has been consistently associated with lower risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, but its relationship with premenopausal breast cancer is unclear”( ).
Analysis was done to find that if “physical activity is associated with reduced incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, and, if so, what age period and intensity of activity are critical.” ?
Leisure-time physical activity was studied in total of 64,777 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II, that was reported, starting on the 1997 questionnaire, from age 12 to their current age.
The relationship between various intensity of physical activities, by adolescence, adulthood, and lifetime, and invasive premenopausal breast cancer risk were evaluated.
550 premenopausal women developed breast cancer, during 6 years of follow-up. Leisure-time physical activity was associated with a reduced risk for premenopausal breast cancer, more so, in participants lifetimes leisure-time physical activity rather than for any one intensity or age period.
Maruti SS, Willett WC, Feskanich D, Rosner B, Colditz GA. A prospective study of age-specific physical activity and premenopausal breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008 May 21;100(10):728-37. Epub 2008 May 13.

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“Combined cardiorespiratory and resistance training, even of very brief duration, improves the QOL and the overall physical fitness of women breast cancer survivors.”
Herrero F, San Juan AF, Fleck SJ, Balmer J, Pérez M, Cañete S, Earnest CP, Foster C, Lucía A. Combined aerobic and resistance training in breast cancer survivors: A randomized, controlled pilot trial.
Int J Sports Med. 2006 Jul;27(7):573-80.
===
“Through dance, patients may experience the freedom of total body movement that enhances their adjustment to a new body image. An organized group setting provides a support mechanism that enables patients to share their experiences, fosters a positive attitude toward exercise, and facilitates psychological adjustment to the diagnosis of breast cancer.”
Molinaro J, Kleinfeld M, Lebed S. Physical therapy and dance in the surgical management of breast cancer. A clinical report.: Phys Ther. 1986 Jun;66(6):967-9.]
===
“……… survivors who reported increasing their exercise also reported lower fatigue. Trends were also found between increased fruit and vegetable intake and decreased fatigue and between increased exercise and increased social support.”
Alfano CM, Day JM, Katz ML, Herndon JE 2nd, Bittoni MA, Oliveri JM, Donohue K, Paskett ED. Exercise and dietary change after diagnosis and cancer-related symptoms in long-term survivors of breast cancer: CALGB 79804.1: Psychooncology. 2008 Jun 5.
===

ENDOMETRIAL (UTERINE) CANCER

Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the lower female genital tract in Europe and the United States. …
Obesity and inactivity are two of the major risk factors associated with the development of endometrial cancer and endometrial hyperplasia. Other modifiable risk factors include dietary habits, exercise and the use of hormonal therapy. Similar factors, along with cancer biomarkers, may play an important role in the early detection of endometrial cancer and survival after the diagnosis. The majority of these factors fit well with the unopposed oestrogen theory. Diet and exercise programmes are currently not integrated into a standard treatment programmes for patients with endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial cancer
.
“ Next generation therapies for endometrial cancer and endometrial hyperplasia patients should include diet, exercise and weight loss plans, which would target other modifiable aspects of endometrial cancer risk.”

Linkov F, Edwards R, Balk J, Yurkovetsky Z, Stadterman B, Lokshin A, Taioli E.
Endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial cancer and prevention: Gaps in existing research of modifiable risk factors.Eur J Cancer. 2008 May 29

 

COLON CANCER


“There is evidence that the risk of colon cancer is reduced by appropriate levels of physical exercise. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in this protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Inflammation is emerging as a unifying link between a range of environment exposures and neoplastic risk.”
Inthis study exercise training was noted to exert “remarkable antiproliferative and antiinflammatory effects in the rat colonic mucosa, suggesting that this may be an important mechanism to explain how exercise protects against colonic cancer.”
Demarzo MM, Martins LV, Fernandes CR, Herrero FA, Perez SE, Turatti A, Garcia SB. Exercise reduces inflammation and cell proliferation in rat colon carcinogenesis.Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008 Apr;40(4):618-21.
Department of Pathology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto-São Paulo, Brazil.
==

Colorectal cancer survivors meeting public health exercise guidelines reported significantly and meaningfully better quality of life and fatigue scores than colorectal cancer survivors who did not meet guidelines.
Peddle CJ, Au HJ, Courneya KS. Associations Between Exercise, Quality of Life, and Fatigue in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Jun 7.

RENAL CANCER

”The authors conclude that increased physical activity, including activity during adolescence, is associated with reduced risk of renal cell cancer.”
Moore SC, Chow WH, Schatzkin A, Adams KF, Park Y, Ballard-Barbash R, Hollenbeck A, Leitzmann MF. Physical Activity during Adulthood and Adolescence in Relation to Renal Cell Cancer.Am J Epidemiol. 2008 May 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Links

CHRONIC DISEASES (10,18)
Dance exercise are helpful in management of many diseases.


CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most or all days of the week

( includes brisk walking, dancing, bowling, bicycling, gardening, and housecleaning.)

all at once or three shorter periods of at least 10 minutes each lower risk of coronary heart disease, lower blood pressure, and lower bad c and higher good cholesterol.

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: By burning calories helps weight management.

DIABETES MELLITUS: Exercise lowers blood sugar.


How Is Coronary Artery Disease Treated? Increase Physical Activity

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Cad/CAD_Treatments.html

BONES AND MUSCLES:

Dancing a weight bearing exercise and strengthen the bones.

Prevent bone fractures.

Help in pain control and keep mobile in case of Osteoarthritis.

24 cognitively normal older social dancers were compared with 84 age-, sex-, and education-matched older nondancers participating in study.
Motor and cognitive performance was assessed using standard methods. The results suggested that long-term social dancing may be associated with better balance and manner of walking (22).

 

BRAIN DISORDERS


ALZHEIMER & DEMENTIA


This was attributed engagement of the dancer's mind to dance music.
increase blood flow to the brain during dancing, social effect lead
to less stress, depression and loneliness, memorization of dance steps and working with a partner. All these are teasing the brain creating a situation of mental aerobic exercise (14,15).
a regular exercise program (30 minutes of physical activity at least three days a week) can reduce your risk of dying in the next eight years by 40 percent, improve brain function, cut your risk of Alzheimer's disease by up to 60 percent (31/32/33).
Ballroom dancing at least twice a week made people less likely to develop dementia. Research also has shown that some people with Alzheimer's disease are able to recall forgotten memories when they dance to music they used to know (15)

Exercise improves your mood.(10)
Need to blow off some steam after a stressful day? A workout at the gym or a brisk 30-minute walk can help you calm down.
Exercise stimulates various brain chemicals, which may leave you feeling happier and more relaxed than you were before you worked out. You'll also look better and feel better when you exercise regularly, which can boost your confidence and improve your self-esteem. Exercise even reduces feelings of depression and anxiety.

Parkinson’s disease:
A 12-day prospective, blinded pilot-study of waltz-lessons in 5 patients with moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 5 age-matched depressed patients was performed. AD patients showed a significant beneficial effect in procedural learning whereas depressed patients did not (21).




DEPRESSION:

Exercise Fuels the Brain's Stress Buffers
http://www.apahelpcenter.org/articles/article.php?id=25
Exercise may improve mental health by helping the brain cope better with stress, according to research into the effect of exercise on neurochemicals involved in the body's stress response.
Preliminary evidence suggests that physically active people have lower rates of anxiety and depression than sedentary people.

IMMUNITY

Exercise improve the immune system.

SLEEP
Help to fall asleep and to deep sleep. Normal sleep pattern can improve concentration, patient, mood and productivity.
"Interrupted or poor sleep could be a contributing factor to a less than optimal muscle and strength response to exercise" (3).
Sleep affect so many aspect of mental and physical health
Sleep deprivation disturbs sugar metabolism and feel hungry and eat more, and put on weight.
Sleep deprived lacks interest in sex.

Lack of sleep makes one to accident prone.

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